Taiwan is located in the subtropical area. During spring and summer, people often crowd in the seashores, creeks and rivers, where potential risks exist. In addition, those people often ignore their safety that usually leads to drowning accidents. This research tries to find the factors causing drowning in hazardous water area, such as Dabao creek, Nanshi creek, and Xidien creek, in Taipei County by interviewing those lifeguards in the lifesaving stations. This research also intends to propose the policy suggestions for preventing drowning accidents by interviewing the workers of the government''s related departments, identifying the weaknesses of current drowning prevention policies, and taking the drowning prevention policies of others countries as reference.
According to the findings of this research, the causal factors of drowning in dangerous water areas are as follows. Firstly, personal behavior factors include: young people swimming to compete with each other, people entering water with jeans, not knowing the characteristics of the water areas, slipping into the deep water, being exhausted, having spasms, poor swimming skills, diving and bumping against stones or chocks to water carelessly, using swimming tools improperly, adults are negligent of supervising and looking after, not understanding the depths of water areas, and drunk or entering water after eating too much. Secondly, dangerous factors of water areas include: the swirl, the undercurrent and the riverbed drop, being washed away by water caused by afternoon thunderstorm causing the rivers to be rapid, the wet and slippery rocks, invisible moving stones, the large intervals/gaps, causing people to be washed away or stuck in the stone’s crack, the water temperature differences at different layers being huge, the icy-cold water that resulting in spasms. Third, environmental safety factors include: lack of safety devices, lack of warnings, lack of lifesaving stations, and lack of proper CPR.
The research findings indicate that current accident prevention policies have the following weaknesses: lack of in-charge organizations with duties and responsibilities, lack of enforceable laws and rules, lack of unified caution/warning signs, insufficient prevention and guidance work, needing to pursue the water safety education in an all-round way, and needing to popularize swimming lifesaving skills; The recovery rate of drowning accidents still need to be improved and related public departments, such as construction, education, health, and fire Department, have to keep providing suggestions. The conclusions of the proposed strategy for drowning accident prevention are (1) strategy sharing: regarding the prevention and education of drowning accidents, to reduce the incidence rate by changing the environment, and to share the strategies and achievements of incidence prevention done by all units; (2) resource integration: all units need to help and support one another, and to find out the cooperation mechanisms; and (3) integration of achievements and information: integrating and analyzing the death rate and frequency of drown accidents as a reference for downing prevention strategies.