With the party alternation in power, Taiwan’s democratic transformation is gradually leaping forward. Following this evolution, the new government has been successively proposing and executing reformation programs since assuming office. The reformation of military service system is one of them. In fact, the Ministry of National Defense has been experimenting with the all-volunteer military service system since 2003 by manning only volunteer soldiers in one selected battalion level unit in each service. However, this system is still in the experiment phase. Before it can be realized, coordinated measures are required and several problems must be solved. Nevertheless, to win public support, the former government reduced the term of compulsive military service from one year and ten months to one year. With about 5-week basic training program and more than 100 days statutory leaves, each conscript can actually serve in the military for approximately 7 months. With this brief military service term, the proficiency of fighting skill of each conscript is doubtful not to mention about maintaining the overall Armed Forces operation readiness level. Therefore, as soon as President Ma assumed the office, he declared that Taiwan will implement all-volunteer military system in 4 to 6 years. This policy is catching a lot of public attention that if this vast-scale experiment will breed an excellent military service system or become a source of problems which jeopardize national security.
Generally, no matter a country is implementing conscription military service system, volunteer military service system, or a composite system of the previous two, there is no argument about which is better but which is more appropriate. This study adopts a qualitative approach and employs document analysis, interviews to understand current decision making process for military service system implementation and analyze its affecting factors. It is trying to seek the correct direction of adopting a military service system and how the government is planning and implementing this system. Does the government face the truth with professional analysis when making its decision, or actually thinking about the support of populace in favor of the future election? What role is the legislature playing in this military service system reformation?