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    題名: 我國國軍官兵權益保障委員會功能評估之研究
    其他題名: The research on functions estimate of the legal rights protection commission of ROC military forces
    作者: 陳瑞榮;Chen, Juei-jung
    貢獻者: 淡江大學公共行政學系公共政策碩士在職專班
    黃一峰;Huang, Irving Yi-feng
    關鍵詞: 特別權力關係;一般權力關係;人權;國民權;Besonderes Gewaltverhaltnis;Allgemeines Gewaltverhaltnis;Human Right;Civic Right
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 04:41:49 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 德國著名的軍事理論學者包狄辛將軍,曾提出著名之理論,認為軍人乃「穿著軍服之公民」(Staatsburger im Uniform),此一用語將軍人從「軍人以服從為天職」的桎梏中解放出來,也成為現今學界之共識(陳新民,2000)。同時「軍人權益」隨著人權概念的普及,和世界人權宣言最重要的理念「人人生而自由;在尊嚴及權利上一律平等。人人有資格享受本宣言所載的一切權利和自由,不分種族、膚色、性別、語言、宗教、政治或其他見解、國籍或社會出身、財產、出生或其他身分等任何區別(行政院研考會,2002:72-73)。2000年我國經歷首次政黨輪替,陳水扁先生就任總統後不久,即明確地宣示了「人權立國」之理念,此一理念不但揭示了新政府施政的規臬與目標,也顯示我國邁入廿一世紀所追求的政治價值。因此,如何透過基本人權保障的觀念,來重塑軍人的地位,並保障軍人應有的權益,進而提昇國軍的戰力,就成為一個十分重要的課題。

    民國五十年三月正式訂頒「國軍申訴制度」(國防部,2002),其開宗明義就指出:「國軍官兵申訴制度旨在建立溝通管道,維護官兵(含聘雇人員)合法權益」。惟經國防部於民國八十四年委託中研院陳新民教授針對國軍「申訴制度」運作成效做調查,其中認為軍中申訴制度真正能保障軍人權益者僅三一‧七%,且曾經利用過申訴制度者也僅有三八‧五%(陳新民,韓毓傑,1995)。另國軍官兵對於申訴制度的信任程度只有中等程度,有三成的官兵認為,提出申訴,長官會藉機找麻煩,這樣的看法其實影響著軍中申訴制度的穩定性(張榮福1986)。

    本研究透過文獻探討法(Literature Review)及問卷調查法(Questionnaire Method),針對單位功能與角色評估、個人角色與功能評估及角色認知的相關文獻做深入探究,瞭解單位功能與角色評估、個人角色與功能評估及角色認知的關係,進一步進行初探性的調察研究。以年齡、性別、基礎學資、軍種、階級、職務屬性、教育程度、單位屬性為自變項,單位功能與角色評估、對個人角色與功能的評估等構面為依變項,探討國軍人口變項在角色認知變項上,對國軍官兵權益保障委員會之單位功能與角色評估及個人角色與功能評估之關聯性。

    本研究建議如下:
    一、制定「軍人法」,明令保障規範:
    依「國防法」第十八條:現役軍人及其家屬、後備軍人之優待及應有之權益,以法律保護之。第十九條:軍人權利遭受違法或不當侵害時,依法救濟之。誠如公務人員之人事法制與時俱進,尤以公務人員權益之保障及救濟制度,除已明定「公務人員保障法」及相關配套措施外,更設有「公務人員保障暨培訓委員會」之獨立機關,據以保障公務人員之權益等。在軍隊法制化的進程中,宜參酌公務人員進步之人事法制內容,制訂「軍人法」,明確規範軍人權益保障事項,以激勵軍心,提振士氣。
    二、修訂「國防法」,確立組織定位:
    官兵權益保障委員會係國防部於國防二法施行後之新增單位,乃依立法院於審查「國防法」時之附帶決議第三項:國防部應依本法成立「國軍官兵權益保障委員會」而起。依「國防部組織法」第二十條:國防部因業務需要得設各種委員會而編成,並採二級二審制。惟除二級委員會(國防部)外,一級(各司令部)委員會均為監察部門兼任,形成案件調查機關兼輔助救濟機關之雙重身分,易造成官兵疑慮,宜修訂組織編裝,編成常設單位,以專人專責模式運作,方能發揮權益保障最大功能。
    The famous German general and military researcher Wolf Graf von Baudissin developed the concept of "Staatsbürger in Uniform" (citizens in uniform). This concept has freed the military personnel from the shackles of the idea of “obeying order is the vocation for all military personnel”. And now it has become a common consensus in the academia. In the meantime, “the rights of military personnel” has been popularized along with the popularization of the notion of human rights and the important concepts of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights....” “Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” Moreover, after the first rotation of political parties in 2000, President Chen Shui Bian declared human rights as one of the pillars of our country soon after his inauguration. This declaration has not only set up a criterion and goal for the administrations, but also revealed the political goal that our country is going to pursue in the 21st century. Therefore, how to rebuild military personnel’ status and maintain their rights through putting the concept of basic human rights into practice, and then raise the military’s combat efficiency have become a very important task.

    “The Military Complaint System,” which was instituted in March, 1961, states that “the military personnel complaint system is aimed to establish a communication channel to assert military personnel’s (including contract-based employees’) legal rights.” from the very beginning. However, a survey which was conducted by Professor Shin-Min Chen, a researcher in the Academia Sinica, authorizing by the Ministry of National Defense, researching the effectiveness of the military complaint system, indicated that only 31.7% of the interviewees believed that this system could truly ensure military personnel’s human rights. In fact, only 38.5 % of them had used this system. Moreover, they didn’t have full confidence in this system. 30% of them believed that complaining could only lead them into troubles. And their opinions about the system have affected its stability.

    After conducing surveys and reviewing the literature on evaluating the function and role of a department, the role and function of military personnel, and personnel’s belief and understanding, this study used age, gender, entrance qualification, branches of military, military ranks, types of duties, education background and types of serving departments as independent variables, and the function and role of the serving departments, the function and role of the personnel as dependent variables to investigate under the variables of department function and personnel’s belief, what is the relation between the function of the Military Personnel Rights Committee and the role of the personnel.

    This study suggests that:
    1.Legislate “Military Personnel Act,” explicitly state the standard for protecting soldiers’ rights.
    In the National Defence Act, Article 18, “The rights and benefits for active servicemen, their dependents, and reserves shall be protected by law.” ; Article 19, “The rights of servicemen shall be legally protected when infringed by unlawful or unjust treatments.” Just as how the Civil Service Protection Act has been amended, the Civil Service Protection and Training Commission was established to ensure civil service personnel’s rights, the legislation of Military Personnel Act should refer to the Civil Service Protection Act in order to be able to ensure military personnel’s rights and inspire and boost their morale.

    2.Revise National Defence Act to ascertain each unit or department’s role and function.
    When the Legislative Yuan reviewed the National Defence Act and the 20th Article of Organization Act of the Ministry of National Defense, “The Ministry of National Defense, when deeming it necessary, may establish various committees. The amount of employees in such committees shall be fulfilled in accordance with this Act.” the Military Personnel Rights Committee was established, using “two-level, two-instance” system, However, except secondary committees (The Ministry of National Defense), all the primary committees were formed by the supervisory units. They were not only in charged of case investigating, but also responsible for protecting military personnel. This kind of dual positions can easily cause doubt among military personnel. Therefore, we should reorganize these committees, establishing permanent committees, specializing in the practice of this Act, to ensure that military personnel’s rights can be really protected by it.
    顯示於類別:[公共行政學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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