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    题名: Key success factors of non-profit organizations - a comparative case study
    其它题名: 非營利組織關鍵成功因素之個案比較研究
    作者: 凱思;Ayyagari, Kanthi
    贡献者: 淡江大學企業管理學系碩士班
    洪英正;Hung, Ying-cheng;吳淑華;Wu, Shu-hua
    关键词: 關鍵成功因素;組織能力;非營利組織;第三世界;Key Success Factors;Capacity Building;Non-Profit Organizations;Third Sector
    日期: 2008
    上传时间: 2010-01-11 03:59:18 (UTC+8)
    摘要:   非營利組織具有明確和獨特的服務屬性,並開始解決社會的需要。非營利組織部門在世界上大部分地區是一個重要的經濟力量,對就業和國家的開銷均有貢獻。2003年由約翰霍普金斯大學研究,如果將其視為一個國家,民間社會方面的支出將使之形成世界上第七大經濟體系. 非營利組織對經濟和值得服務的社會需要的貢獻已被注意到,政府和個人均給予掌聲和支持。並對許多地區提供服務,幫助婦女兒童並提供他們的未來支持,不僅僅在於這些受害者而且包含他們的國家。

      非營利組織的資源有限,沒有收入,使得更重要的是找出並建立成功的因素。Rockart (1979)首次提出主要的成功因素,稱為“成功的關鍵因素”(CSF),意思是“在有限領域的成果,將為組織確保能有成功的競爭力表現”此研究的重點是在適用的作業框架上為非營利組織的成功的關鍵因素列入考慮而產生四種研究。非營利組織的有效能力建設,McKinsey和Co(2001); 非營利組織的績效評量, Singh和Mirchandani (2006); 虛擬社區的成功關鍵因素, Laine的碩士論文(2006) ,和一個由存款互助經營協會和國際判斷策略團體所發表的執行報告(2002)。

      本研究是質化研究,其中包括由過去所研究的結果--七種成功因素作為本研究問卷發展的依據,其中包括利用事先研究提供了七種成功因素的能力評估工具,其中內容包括非營利組織的領導人和工作人員的指導,以了解他們的進展和在未來的能力建設上的需要。而在個人面訪談的部份則包含四名在美國組織A的成員, 五名在印度組織B的成員,和五名在台灣組織C的成員。並且將問卷和個人訪談進行
    分析,以定出各組織在這些因素上的重點和執行差異的情況。從分析中發展出一種新的模式。提出典型與成功因素可為現有和業餘組織作為今後的研究或實際執行的基礎。主張是由問卷分析和訪談結果而來。本研究結論如下:

    1. 當文化,共同的價值觀和信仰,出現在該組織時,將產生較高的成效。
    2. 實行僵化傳統和儀式的文化,將成為該組織的表現及執行進度的阻礙。
    3. 非營利組織的策略應由受援者在計劃實施後得到滿意而形成。
    4. 對於非營利組織,及時募集資金是成功的關鍵要素。

      結果顯示除上述七種主要成功因素外,本研究出現了第八個因素有助於組織的成功。此外,優先事項和重要的因素在比較能力建設出現後,改變成和原先的模式有些不同。對這三個組織而言,這些因素重要性的順序如下。也就是“文化,策略,組織結構,組織能力,人力資源,系統和基礎設施與展望。

      社會意識計畫,則為第八個最重要的因素,這是在社會,組織和受害者之間最主要的成功的導線,並由為三個組織所極力強調地方。
    Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) have a specific and unique service attribute and are started to address the community needs. The NPO sector is a significant economic force in most regions of the world contributing in employment and national expenditure. Research in 2003 by Johns Hopkins University suggests that the civil society sector expenditure would make it the seventh largest economy in the world if recognized as a country. The NPOs contribution to the economy and in serving the worthy causes of the community needs is noticed, applauded and projected to grow by governments and individuals. Of the many areas of service, helping women and children and their enablement provide future not only to these victims but also to their countries.

    NPOs have limited resources and no revenue making it even more important to identify and build on the success factors. Rockart (1979) first recognized key success factors as “critical success factors” (CSF) meaning “the limited number of areas in which results, will ensure successful competitive performance for the organization.” Research focused on applicable literature and frameworks for key success factors of NPOs resulting in four studies taken into consideration. Effective Capacity Building in Non-Profit Organizations by McKinsey and Co (2001), Performance Measurement of NPOs by Singh and Mirchandani (2006) Key Success Factors of Virtual Communities masters thesis by Laine (2006)and an Executive report published by the Credit Union Executives Society and Decisions Strategy International (2002).

    The research is a qualitative study that includes a documented questionnaire developed using a prior research that provided the sample format of the Capacity Assessment Tool including seven success factors. This was developed as a guide for the NPO’s and their leaders and staff to gauge their progress and their future capacity building needs. A personal interview session was also employed involving 4 members from Organization A in United States, 5 members from Organization B in India, and 5 members from Organization C in Taiwan. The questionnaires and the personal interview sessions were analyzed to identify the importance and the variance of implementation of these factors in the respective organizations. From the analysis a new model is developed. The proposed model with the identified success factors could be the basis for future research or practical implementation for existing and amateur organizations. Propositions were formulated based on the analysis of the questionnaires and the interview sessions. Some of these propositions are:
    Culture of shared values and beliefs when reflected in the organization results in higher performance
    Imposition of rigid traditions and rituals as an implementation of Culture hinders performance and progress of the organization.
    Strategies of non-profit organizations are evolved with recipient satisfaction of the program implementation.
    Timely solicitation of funds is essential for success of programs in non-profit organizations

    The results indicated that in addition to the seven KSFs, an eighth factor contributes to the success of the organizations. Furthermore, the priorities and the importance of the factors changed in comparison to the original model of Capacity Building. The factors are places in the order of importance to the three organizations. These are “Culture, Strategies, Organizational Structure, Organizations Skills, Human Resources, Systems and Infrastructure, Aspirations.

    Social Awareness Programs, the eighth factor is the most critical factor which is the conduit between the society, organization, and the success of the victims’ progress, is strongly emphasized by the three organizations.
    显示于类别:[企業管理學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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