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    Title: 警察執法倫理行動管理策略的理論架構之研究
    Other Titles: A study of the theoretical framework for administrative policies of law enforcement involving ethical judgments
    Authors: 施慶瑞;Shih, Ching-jui
    Contributors: 淡江大學管理科學研究所博士班
    盛慶琜;黃國隆
    Keywords: 依法行政;規則;原則理論;道德法則;可分離命題;責任倫理;倫理性;道德性;儒家「知性」的意義;德福一致論;rule by laws;rules;the principle of theory;moral laws;detachable proposition;ethical responsibility;ethical;morality;the meaning of the intellectual in the Confucian school;Telford consistent theory
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 03:51:09 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 我國警察機關對基層警察執法管理一向強調「依法行政」的概念。惟此「依法行政」概念係依狹義法實證主義的「分離命題」,將「法律」與「道德」分離,並認為「倫理學不可知論」,將「法律」與「倫理」、「道德」分開,因此,就執法管理而言,「在法言法」,管理者只針對實定法規範所課予的法律責任從事他律性的管理作為,而將執法的「倫理」議題訴諸法律以外的一般所謂的「責任倫理」觀念。
    本文從法學觀點,依法理論,將我國警察執法實務上所面對的「法」之性質的認識分類為「規則」、「法律原則」與「道德法則」三種,並依其所對應的執法行動性質,將之分為「法律」、「倫理」與「道德」三類;再依「合法性/正當性」、「法認識/執法行動」兩個構面建立一個執法管理策略的理論架構,且逐一界定各個名詞定義,據以確立系統性與行動性的執法管理標的。
    就執法行動的管理策略方面,本文首要依上述理論架構建立管理者與執法者「知」的相依關係。由於此對「法」的「知」涉及行動性之「道德」(良知)意涵,因此,本文所持自然法的觀點甚為明顯。本文認為,即使持狹義法實證主義者Hart等之「規則」的法認識觀點,吾人仍可將Hart「承認規則」的意義與Kelsen基本規範的理論預設做有效的結合,而與本文執法管理理論架構上的「倫理」、「道德」議題相關。由之仍可將一般所謂「責任倫理」的觀念納入本文系統性的執法管理範疇。
    其次,就原則理論法律原則之執法管理而言,本文將之分為宏觀與微觀兩種管理標的。前者,本文係以Dworkin法詮釋學整全法精神之原則理論的執法行動管理為主題。對此,本文提出一種哲學詮釋學之「理解」的存有學向度-建立對「執法」這個志業之所本的法學之一種「強烈的價值涉入論」之「為己之學」之積極性的管理策略。對後者而言,在確認Alexy原則理論之效用主義目的論性格後,基於行動性管理之目的,本文舉出一種將效用主義與Aristotle幸福論結合之統合效用主義(UUT)價值通論的觀點,惟認為由於效用主義快樂主義的本質觀點難以證成Kant之所謂「德福一致論」的說法;且Kant「德福一致論」終需賴宗教信仰上的上帝來保證,此實已脫離本文本於「認知性」之管理活動特質的掌握,故本文另提出一種傳統儒家思想上「知性」的途徑來證成執法者道德性執法行動必與其幸福相俱之「德福一致論」,以做為執法管理上對執法者效用主義效用原則之衡量上的一種「道德性」之行動的基源。
    最後,在對執法者就Kant理性自然法「道德法則」之法認識下之「道德性」執法行動的管理方面。從Kant實在二元論,本文認為Kant「道德法則」之實踐性只為人類理性的空想,而無行動上真實性的基礎,因此,本文仍提出儒家道德教育之「知性」的途徑做為一種以教育代替管理之積極性管理策略。
    本文認為「法律」、「倫理」與「道德」之執法行動性的管理,終歸還是一個屬於道德自律性執法行動問題的解決。就中國自然法的觀點,凡此管理範疇與策略皆可納入一個本文所提出的系統性之理論架構來辦理。
    The police system in Taiwan always puts emphasis on the concept of the “rule by laws” in the grassroots’ police law enforcement. The concept of the “rule by laws” is based on the narrow sense positivism- “detachable proposition”, which separates “laws” and “ethics” and holds that it splits “laws”, “ethics” and “morality” based on “agnosticism in ethics”. Hence, in terms of law enforcement management, business as business, the managers just consider the lawful responsibilities occurred from the norms of the positive law and devote themselves to the heteronymous management behavior and appeal to ethical responsibility outside the law under the issue of law enforcement ethics.
    This thesis, based on the legal theory, classifies the recognition of the character law faced by the police law enforcement practice into 3 categories: the rules, the principles and the moral laws, and it classifies the corresponding law enforcement operational nature also into three categories, namely the law, the ethics and the morality. Then, along the two dimensions “legality/ legitimacy” and “law awareness/ law enforcement”, and, I construct a theoretical framework of law enforcement managerial policies and define the meanings of the various terms, thus forming my systematic and operational managerial objectives.
    As far as the law enforcement managerial policies are concerned, the main purpose of this thesis is to establish the understanding dependencies between managers and law enforcers based on the above-mentioned theories. Since the understanding of the law is relevant to the morality (steer conscience) of the operation, it is quite obvious that the view held by this thesis is based on the natural law. I am of the opinion that even those who hold the viewpoint of the “rule” of the law awareness from the narrow sense positivist like Hart, we still can combine the rule of recognition made by Hart and the theory of default of the “Grundnormtheorie” in Kelson effectively and make it interrelated with ethics and morality under the law enforcement theoretical structure here. And thus, I still can bring the so called “ethical responsibility” into the systematic law enforcement managerial category
    In addition, in terms of managerial policies in the law principle of the principle theory, I divided it into macrocosmic and microcosmic, 2 management objectives. The former takes the law enforcement operational management of Dworkin’s spirit of the comprehensive law in the law hermeneutics as a motif. Therefore, I propose a comprehension of the ontological dimension in philosophical hermeneutics to construct a positive managerial policy in the “self-learning theory” of the “strong thesis of value involvement” toward law enforcement itself. As for the later, after checking with the character of Alexy’s teleology of utilitarianism in the principle theory, on the basis of the purpose of the operational management, I propose a viewpoint of integration of the unified utilitarian theory based on utilitarianism and eudamonimus of Aristotle. However, owing to the nature of eudamonismus of utilitarianism, it is difficult to justify the statement of Kant’s Telford consistent theory. Since Kant’s Telford consistent theory relies on the security of the religion belief, it has already broken away from the cognitive of the management activities in this thesis. Consequently, this thesis brings up another feature of tradition Confucianism, the perspective of “intellect”, as a way to show that moral laws operation must comply with the Telford consistent theory so as to be the one of the estimate of the “morality” operational basic source toward the law enforcement management for the utilitarianism of law enforcer.
    At last, as for the law enforcer’s understanding of morality law enforcement operation from the moral laws of Kant’s rational natural law, from the perspective of Kant’s realistic duality, I thought Kant’s practical moral laws are nothing but a pipe dream in human’s rationality, without a basis in the authenticity of action. I propose to use the “intellect” of the moral education in Confucianism as an approach to substitute the positive managerial policies.
    This thesis holds that the management of the law enforcement operation among the “laws”, the “ethics” and the “morality” eventually belongs to solving a problem of moral self-discipline in law enforcement operation. On the point of view of the Chinese natural law, all these areas related to this kind of management and policies can be dealt with by the systematic theoretical framework brought forth by this thesis.
    Appears in Collections:[管理科學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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