|摘要: ||隨著時代變遷、全球經濟崛起、消費者習慣轉變及貿易自由化的推行等等，國營事業似乎已經無法再墨守成規，坐享專營與獨營事業的優勢。為了求得企業永續生存的契機，政府自1989年開始積極推動國營事業民營化政策，逐年逐步撤除對國營事業的各項保護措施，期望所有國營事業能一改過往老大的經營心態，確實面對開放市場競爭之壓力，讓經營者（Managers）與員工（Employees）能以經營績效（Management Performance）來肯定國營事業有其存在於競爭社會的能力。今日的國營事業因政經環境之變化，逐漸喪失獨佔優勢，除了受到民營企業的競爭威脅之外，其『服務品質』與『營運績效』亦倍受民眾質疑。國營事業為免於被淘汰之命運，除了組織轉型改造之外，亦應盡速改善服務品質與提昇營運績效。所以，無論國營事業是與否，及遲與早民營化之外，其本身亦需強化服務效能，以提昇競爭力，方能生存及成長。正因有感於此，有關國營事業與民營企業所提供予社會群眾與消費對象的服務品質有哪些不一樣的地方？服務的範圍是否大小只限於本身產業所應用的顧客？是否只限於某種特定的領域？等等都須深加調查分析。所以本研究特就【客服效能於國營事業與民營企業之差異】進行深入的專題研究。本研究針對『客服效能』差異之因素，包括【客服中心】、【服務品質】、【客服人格特質】與【顧客關係管理】，經由深入訪談六位對國、民營事業之「經營管理」與「客戶互動關係管理」有豐富經驗之專業經理人與資深媒體記者（5位與1位）之方法，請教（1）是否重視客戶服務？（2）是否有獎金制度，鼓勵客服員工？（3）『客服效能』是否衝擊營收？（4）是否計畫以加強客服工作，提升事業體的營運績效？（5）是否重視「顧客關係管理」？（6）對負責『客戶服務』工作的同仁，是否有一套完整的職前與在職訓練計畫？（7）其績效評量標準如何？本研究發現，企業欲提昇『服務』創造『利潤』，除了要求專業經理人『推動服務』、『創新服務』之外，更需要客服人員『落實服務』，提昇『服務效能』，創造『企業競爭力』。所以影響國營事業與民營企業『客服效能』差異的原因，除了上述因素之外，還有【獎金制度激勵效果】、【事業屬性、客戶特性不同】、【教育訓練】、【員工服務心態】、【市場競爭】等等因素。本研究對國營事業與民營企業於面對全球化競爭壓力下，在『客服效能』創造方面提出建議，以增加其競爭優勢。|
Due to time evolution, global economy boom, consumer behavior alteration, and trade liberalization, State-Owned Enterprises no longer enjoy the advantages of “exclusive” business brought about by monopolizing the market. In order to fulfill the ultimate goal of sustainable business, the government of Taiwan has been progressively promoting policies for privatizing State-Owned Enterprises since 1989. Since then, the protective measures created for State-Owned Enterprises were gradually removed year-by-year, which forces State-Owned Enterprises to face the pressures resulted from open market competition. Consequently, from their operation performances, administrators as well as employees of State-Owned Enterprises can rest assured that their existence will make significant differences.
The State-Owned Enterprises nowadays have lost the exclusive business advantages In the market position. Despite experiencing the competitive threats from Private Enterprises, the “Service Quality” and “Operation Performance” of State-Owned Enterprises have also been mistrusted by the general public. To avoid been eliminated through competition, State-Owned Enterprises must be quickly reformed by improving their “Service Quality” and “Operation Performance”. As the result, no matter the State-Owned Enterprises will undergo privatization or not, strengthening their service performance is an essential measure to improve their overall business competitiveness. For this reason, the differences in service qualities provided to the consumers or general public by state-owned and private enterprises will be discussed. Questions like “Are these services limited only to the customers in the applied industries or in the specific field?” will be investigated to understand the customer service performances between State-Owned and Private Enterprises. Moreover, based on the business strategy and service concept, the topic of “customer service performance variations in State-Owned and Private Enterprises” will be studied.
In this study, besides “Customer Service Center”, “Service Quality”, “Personal Characteristics of Customer Service Staff”, and “Customer Relation Management”, and other factors influencing “Customer Service Performance” variations have been investigated by interviewing with 5 professional managers and 1 senior media reporter who are experienced in “operation management” and “customer inter-relationship management”. Questions about their enterprises, such as (1) “do you take customer services seriously?”, (2) “is there any bonus system to encourage customer service staff?”, (3) “will customer service performance impact on business profit?”, (4) “do you plan to improve business operation performance by enhancing customer services?”, (5) “do you take customer relationship management seriously?”, (6) “is there a complete pre-service and on-the-job training program for customer service staff?”, and（7） “how to carry out the performance evaluation?” will be raised. From investigating these issues, it was found out that in order to improve “service” and create “profit”, not only the professional managers have to “promote service” and “innovate service”, but the customer service staff also have to “practice service”, “improve service performance”, and “create business competitiveness”. Besides the four factors mentioned earlier, other factors influencing “customer service performance” variations between state-owned and private enterprises include “bonus system encouragement”, “variations in business attributes and customer characteristics”, “educational training”, “staff’s attitudes toward services”, and “market competitions”, etc.
This research provides some recommendations to upgrade the “Customer Service Efficiency” to State-Own as well as Private Enterprises in order to enhance their competitiveness.