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    Title: 創業者與高階管理者在人格特質對策略選擇的影響之研究
    Other Titles: A study of personality difference between entrepreneurs and top managers and its impact on strategic choices
    Authors: 魏伶玲;Wei, Lin-lin
    Contributors: 淡江大學管理科學研究所企業經營碩士在職專班
    李培齊;Lii, Peirchyi
    Keywords: 創業者;高階管理者;內外控傾向;管理特質之性別角色;領導特質;策略選擇;Entrepreneurs;Top Managers;locus of control;the Gender Role of Gender-Based Management;personality traits;Strategy Selection
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 03:38:23 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 由於經營環境多變,決策的速度和執行力也比以往任何時候都更加重要。創業者與高階管理者都是企業的“推手”,也都是領導者,必需對企業經營決策成敗負責。領導人的領導能力與管理風格影響一個企業經營績效,對於最高策略性決策及組織資源分配亦握有相當主導權,不同的領導能力與管理風格會導致企業經營績效呈現不同的績效成果,本研究即在於探討創業者與高階管理者在領導特質與決策思維上的差異。。
    領導特質被視為是一種行為特質,而人格特質常用於解釋個人行為發生的原因,良好的管理者不一定是只具有男性管理特質,管理者的背景、年資、教育程度、年齡往往表現於其領導及策略選擇態度。在所有因素之中,創業者與高階管理者的內外控傾向、管理特質之性別角色、領導特質及是否與選擇進入策略的內外環境有所差異是本研究所選取的探討因素。
    本研究經過探討後,以三家不同產業的創業者及二家外商公司及一家國營企業的高階管理者為研究對象,透過個案研究進行資料探討。以「創業者與高階管理者」為自變數,以本研究所定義之「內外控傾向人格特質」、「管理特質之性別角色」、「領導特質」、「進入策略內外環境因素」為應變數來探討創業者與高階管理者在人格特質的差異對策略選擇的影響。
    本研究的結論分述如下:
    一、創業者與高階管理者同時具有「內外控傾向人格特質」及「兩性化管理特質之性別角色」特質,但是在國營企業的高階管理者傾向「內控傾向人格特質」及「男性化管理特質之性別角色」特質
    二、轉換型領導被視為一種行為特質,五大人格特質中的「聰穎開放性」、「外傾支配性」及「和善性」為轉換型領導的重要性質之一,所以可以預測轉換型領導特質的個體為一低「神經質」個體。這四項人格特質因素,符合創業者與高階管理者在轉換型領導特質的推論。
    三、一位成功的領導人擁有的不只是經驗,還要有耐性、技能、韌性及獨特的判斷力。創業者與高階管理者不再只著重企業組織內部環境的優勢,同樣能掌握外部環境的機會,適時改變策略,將策略性的資源在關鍵時間點作最佳的配置以建立企業的競爭優勢。
    The variability of business environment has made the speed and execution force of decision-making more important than ever. Both entrepreneurs and top managers must be responsible for the success or failure of policy decisions in enterprise management. The leadership and management style of a leader influences business performance, and also dominates the highest strategic decision-making and the allocation of organizational resources. Different leadership and management styles lead to different performance results. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in leadership traits and thoughts of decision-making between entrepreneurs and top managers.

    Leadership traits are viewed as a kind of behavioral traits while personal traits tend to be used to explain the causes of personal behaviors. A good manager is not necessarily only characterized by masculine traits. The background, years of service, educational background, and age of managers tend to influence their leadership and attitudes of strategy selection. Among all the factors, the locus of control, gender role of management traits, and leadership traits of entrepreneurs and senior managers, as well as the differences in their choices of entering the strategic internal and external environments, are the factors to be investigated in this study.

    This study selected three entrepreneurs in different industries 、two top mangers in foreign companies and one state-owned enterprise as the subjects, and conducted case study. “Entrepreneurs and top managers” was chosen as an independent variable, while the “personality trait of locus of control,” “leadership traits,” “factors influencing entering strategic internal and external environment” were chosen as dependent variables to investigate how the differences of personality traits between entrepreneurs and top managers influence their strategy selection.

    The conclusions are as follows:
    1.Both entrepreneurs and top managers share the traits of “personality trait of locus of control” and “the gender role of gender-based management.” However, the top managers in the state-owned enterprise tend to possess the trait of “personality trait of locus of control” and “the gender role of masculine management.”
    2.Transformational leadership is viewed as a kind of behavioral trait. The “openness,” “extraversion,” and “agreeableness” of the Big Five Personality traits are important properties of transformational leadership. Therefore, it could be predicted that an individual of transformational leadership is an individual with low “neuroticism.” These four kinds of personality traits correspond to the hypothesis of traits of transformational leadership of entrepreneurs and senior managers.
    3.A successful leader not only had experiences, but also patience, skills, toughness, and unique power of judgment. Entrepreneurs and senior managers no loner only put emphasis on the advantages of internal environment of an organization and they would also grasp opportunities of external environment, change strategies at the right time, and place strategic resources at the best position at the critical moment to establish the competitive advantages of enterprises.
    Appears in Collections:[管理科學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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