|題名: ||快樂的衡量與決定： 論述與實證|
|其他題名: ||Measuring and determination of happiness : discussion and evidence|
|作者: ||黃傳仁;Huang, Chuan-ren|
|關鍵詞: ||快樂;滿意度;happiness;satisfaction;ordered probit model|
|上傳時間: ||2010-01-11 02:11:13 (UTC+8)|
本文利用中央研究院建立的「台灣社會變遷調查」(Taiwan Social Change Survey) 資料庫，研究影響台灣民眾快樂與各種滿意度的因素，最終得到的結果如下：(1) 在整體快樂與朋友滿意度，年齡具有U型型態。(2) 女性的滿意度普遍要比男性要高，且來得快樂。(3) 婚姻與家庭狀況對快樂與滿意度有重要的影響力，且已婚或家庭合諧的人相較未婚或家庭有問題的人要來得快樂。(4) 低學歷的人具有容易滿足的現象，在整體快樂的分析上尤其明顯。(5) 台灣民眾在意絕對所得，而別人的所得高低在工作、經濟狀況、生活滿意度的考量上佔有重要的地位，但在整體快樂的考量上則不如自己的所得來得重要。(6) 宗教對台灣民眾快樂的影響不如其他國家；休閒與健康對快樂都有正向的影響。(7) 個人價值觀只要偏向正面，絕大多數對快樂與滿意度都有正面且明顯的影響，除了重視工作保障的觀念。
In the past, there were few economic literatures which explored the content of happiness by the analysis of econometrics. Economists have had long disputes about the measurability and comparability of happiness. This problem hampered the study of happiness. Recently, Ng suggested that everyone has a common ‘zero’ point on the scale of net happiness. Thus, even if happiness may not be measured exactly, it is still measurable in ration-scale so that cardinal comparison is acceptable. Researchers began to use questionnaires surveys to execute personal comparisons of happiness and to investigate the determinants of happiness.
Happiness indicates the subjective appreciation of life as a whole, whilst satisfaction is regarded as a cognitive state with respect to a specific domain of life, like job, marriage, and leisure, etc. Utility and happiness/satisfaction are conceptually correlated but different in properties. Traditionally, economists assume that individuals are rational, which implies that each person has a stable utility function. However, a person in different stage of life shows different preferences because of changing opportunities and perceptions of what is desirable. This means that people adjust their perceived utility functions and behavior through a process of reflection. The modification of perceptions and behavior hinges on an individual’s value and attitude toward life. To take the reflection effect on preference into account, this study incorporates the characteristic function suggested by Lancaster into a happiness maximization model. Furthermore, based on the extension of McBride’s econometric model, we carry out empirical studies on the determination of happiness and satisfaction.
The dataset we use is Taiwan Social Change Survey sponsored by the Taiwan National Science Council. Using an ordered probit model, we investigate the determinants of happiness and satisfaction in four life domains. The main results include: (1) There is a U-shaped relationship between age and happiness, and a similar pattern is also existed with regard to relationship satisfaction. (2) Women appear to be more satisfied and happier than men. (3) The influence of marriage and family on happiness and satisfaction are apparent. Married people and people of a harmonious family appear to have higher level of happiness. (4) In contrast to the finding of literature, low-educated people are happier and more contented than others (5) Higher income is associated with higher levels of happiness. In addition to absolute income, satisfaction with job, financial status and life depends on comparison income as well. (6) Religion has little effect upon happiness in Taiwan, whereas leisure and health are positively correlated with happiness. (7) Individual’s value and attitudes have strong effects on happiness and satisfaction； positive attitudes and views always bring forth high level of happiness and satisfaction. The only exception is the value of job security which is shown to be irrelevant to job satisfaction.