|摘要: ||隨著國內經濟環境轉變，我國銀行業者業務經營方向由傳統資金中介者逐漸轉入非利息收入的手續費收入市場。其中，具收入穩定、低風險與高報酬特性的基金保管業務(custodian)，成為目前各大商業銀行積極爭取之營運項目。銀行業屬服務業，基於服務的無形性特質，「關係行銷」(relationship marketing)被認為是克服服務無形性的一種有效策略(Berry，1983)，而「服務業行銷的本質是和顧客發展長期而有價值的關係」。與顧客建立長期的買賣關係才是企業獲取長期利潤的主要原因(Johanson and Mattsson，1987)。本研究透過關係行銷相關文獻整理，以Morgan and Hunt (1994)提出之關係行銷之承諾-信任理論的關鍵中間變數(Key Mediating Variables；KMV)模型為基礎觀點，發展本研究之觀念架構；了解關係行銷關鍵前置因素中促進企業雙方合作的影響因素，並藉由國內銀行發展保管共同基金業務之個案，對該個案銀行與其主要往來之國內投信業者進行深度訪談，探討產業中的企業如何由銀行提供的保管服務中遴選合作夥伴，及其雙方關係維持因素進行分析。最後針對實務上採行的關係行銷策略提供具體建議。|
主要研究結果如下：一、本研究觀念架構中之六項前置變數「關係利益」、「關係終止成本」、「共享價值觀」、「溝通」、「投機行為」與「專業能力」變數，對銀行與投信之間的承諾－信任關係確實有顯著影響。二、關係行銷的成果，除使個案銀行業務規模迅速擴展、發揮節省人力作業成本及發揮經濟規模效益外，更藉由雙方長期合作關係使投信業者達成基金順利募集與產品銷售的業務目標。並有以下研究發現；1.銀行「共同基金的銷售能力」與「承諾包銷」及保管作業的「專業能力」成為買賣雙方關係交換的重要條件。2. 就關鍵前置變數「共享價值觀」分析個案銀行遴選保管業務合作夥伴與投信業者之經營理念皆具「提供客戶優質服務與穩健投資商品」之特點。3.投信業者普遍以提供「專業資產管理技術」及「高品牌知名度」服務，作為維繫客戶的競爭條件。4.近年來受銀行積極拓展個人理財服務之影響；投信業共同基金之自有銷售通路(direct sales) 銷售額下滑，有逐漸依賴銀行通路的趨勢。5.經由關係終止成本－「轉換成本」變數的研究，發現業者更換保管機構不會付出轉換成本。惟實務上，保管銀行提供的顧客化(customerization)與差異化的服務和價值成為投信業者更換保管機構的「機會成本」。
As the changes of economic situation, banking industry has become the non-interest fee receiver rather than the traditional capital mediator. Especially, the fund custodian with the characteristics of stable revenue, low risk, and high profit has become the most popular business which the main domestic commercial banks are eager to operate. The banking industry is a part of the financial service industry. In order to overcome the intangibility of service, relationship marketing is believed to be the effective strategy (Berry, 1993). The innate of marketing in service industry is developing the long-term and valuable relationship with customers. Developing the long-term buying -and-selling relationship is the key reason why some companies get the long-term excess profit (Johanson and Mattsson, 1987).
This thesis organizes several seminal papers about the relationship marketing. We derived our main concepts based on the Morgan and Hunt’s (1994) theory－The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing or named Key-Mediating Variables Model (KMV). In order to understand the key leading factors which improve the cooperative relationship between banks and investment trust companies, our empirical study focuses on the evolution of mutual fund custodian of commercial banks in Taiwan. By interviewing the studied banks and their partner investment trust corporations, we investigated how the investment trust corporation chooses the bank which provides custodian services. We also analyzed the key factors of maintaining this partnership. Finally, several concrete suggestions for applying relationship marketing in practice are provided.
The main results of this research are as following:
(1.)There are six leading factors in our conceptual framework: “relationship benefit”, “relationship termination cost”, “shared values”, “communication”, “opportunistic behavior” and “professional skills”. All of them have significant influences on the commitment-trust relationship between banks and investment trust corporations.
(2.)In our case study, the relationship marketing not only helps the bank rapidly expand the business, reduce the labor cost, and utilize the benefit from scale economies, but also helps the investment trust corporation achieve the sales goal of fund raising and product selling through the long-term cooperation.
Besides, there are several findings in our research,
(1.)Fro a bank, the mutual fund’s selling ability, underwriting, and the “professional skills” in custodian are the important factors in the buying-and-selling relationship.
(2.)When using the key leading factor, “shared vales,” to evaluate how the studied bank is chosen as partners for custodian business and the investment trusts corporations’ mission statements, we found that they both shared the value of “providing customers the high-quality service and the risk-resistant investment goods”.
(3.)“Professional asset management skills” and “big-name brand” are commonly provided by most investment trust corporations as the competitive strength to maintain the relation with their customers.
(4.)Recently, owing to the booming of banks’ personal financial management services, the sales in the direct-sale channels of the investment trust corporations had decreased. Hence, the investment trust corporations should rely on the selling channels of banks gradually.
(5.)In the aspect of “relationship termination cost”, “switching cost” is zero for those investment trust corporations who change custodian banks. However, in practice, the customerization and differentiation of service and values among different banks is the “opportunity cost” for the investment trust corporation.