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    Title: 量販業之跨國供應商採購行為模式研究 : 以WAL-MART在中國大陸採購為例
    Other Titles: Supplier's overseas purchasing pattern of wholesalers -Wal-mart purchasing in China as example
    Authors: 李政和;Lee, Cheng-ho
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際貿易學系國際企業學碩士班
    李月華;Lee, Yueh-hua
    Keywords: 零售業;沃爾瑪百貨公司(Wal-Mart (Firm));採購模式;Wholesalers;Wal-mart;Purchasing pattern
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 01:43:09 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 自1989 年荷商萬客隆( Makro) 進軍台灣市場,至2002 年沃爾瑪 ( Wal-mart ) 登上財星 ( Fortune ) 雜誌全美五百大企業排行第一以來,零售業成為能夠打敗所有資產密集及半導體產業的另一項明星產業。加上經濟全球化的趨勢與全球供應鏈環境的改變,就跨國企業而言,如何保有持續的競爭優勢、擴大市場佔有率進而讓公司在全球化中獲利,已是當前企業成長的必修課題。 就面臨將採購總部設立在深圳的Wal-mart而言,採購全球化亦是Wal-mart提高全球競爭力與降低採購成本的首要。

    中國大陸目前是全世界第七大經濟體、第九大貿易國,其人口數超過13億,僅次於美國的第二大投資市場。目前全球500大的企業裡,就有超過50 %至大陸投資。目前美國的沃爾瑪、法商家樂福、德商麥客隆,皆因中國大陸強大的市場商機,相繼來搶攻市場佔有率。除了大陸的廣大市場外,大陸豐富的天然資源與低價勞工,也是零售商為了降低成本所覬覦的要素稟賦,配合大陸製造商生產已成為零售商降低成本之全球採購之行為模式。

    在1992 年12月22日的美國國家廣播公司 ( NBC ) 電視雜誌節目「發稿時間」( Dateline ) 揭露沃爾瑪百貨在孟加拉利用童工一天長達二十小時工作,從此供應商之工廠認證成為沃爾瑪 (Wal-mart) 最重要之採購程序,且每年重新驗證並隨時查驗。除了基本對製造商之ISO 品質認證外,為配合各國政府不同法令及維護自身商業道德名譽,零售商群起效尤制定合乎需求之認證標準,藉此保障自身採購權益,也直接影響大陸製造業之生產品質與工作環境之整體提升,成為大陸工廠與世界接軌之重要關鍵。

    本研究之重點以零售業者採購為主軸,並以美國沃爾瑪百貨為研究對象,運用個案研究方法,蒐集業者在經營管理、配送方式、採購模式及供應商工廠認證之相關資料,配合執行人員之實際操做訪談,深入探討、分析、整理及歸納出沃爾瑪百貨與供應商配合模式與穫利模式,並一窺世界最大之零售業者如何跨國經營,提供後進者該如何成為美國沃爾瑪百貨之供應商之最佳資料參考。
    Since 1989 Makro entered the Taiwan wholesaler’s market, until Mar-mart became the top one of American 500 largest business at Fortune billboard. Wholesalers already became the star business, and transcend another capital trend or semiconductor’s industry. Furthermore, against the irreversible globalization and the world supply – chain change, how to keep the competitive advantage and expand the Market share has become the main subject for the muti-national companies. To establish the main buying office in Shenzhen that globalization purchase policy also is the top priority for Wal-mart increasing their competition and reducing the cost.

    Mainland China is the seventh largest economy and the ninth largest trading nation in the world. With a population more than 1.3 billion, Mainland China is the second largest investment market in the world, next only to the Unites States. For instance, 50% of the 500 largest businesses have invested in Mainland China. Attracted by the tremendous business opportunities, the top 3 retailers – United States’Wal-mart, France’s Carefour, and Germany’s Macron are competing with one another to increase their market share in Mainland China. They compete with one another ceaselessly. In addition to the undeveloped market, the plenteous nature resource and low labor salary also are the main factors for their consideration. To purchase from the China manufacturer already be the consistent style for these big companies.

    The TV program “ Dateline “ on NBC channel of Dec 22nd, 1992 discovered the children labor in Bangladesh took the illegal advantage of 20 hours overtime children labor. Because of it factory assurance became the essential procedure of Wal-mart purchase process. They also could take the examine from time to time to ensure their vendor keep their consistent request. In addition to ISO quality assurance, whole the retailer follow this same rule in order to protect their own brand on ethics thinking and match every different country’s decrees. It also affects the China manufacturer upgrade overall, and be the focal point of connecting with the world supply-chain.

    This thesis took the main shaft on wholesalers’ purchase model and as the example of Wal-mart U.S.A an individual case study to collect the relative information of business administration, strategy operation, purchase plan, and vendor’s factory assurance. Accompanying the executive nuncupative deeply, than conclude sample’s profitable model and how to deal with Wal-mart . Hopefully this report could provide a guide to cooperate with Wal-mart for the future participator.
    Appears in Collections:[國際企業學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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