實證結果顯示，國內生產毛額和平均每人國民所得變數基本上仍是一國發展貿易的主要因素，而距離遠近的交易成本問題不會阻礙美國出口電子和紡織相關產品，其與美國電子和紡織產業分別受到全球化和區域化的影響有關。另外，在開放程度、對外直接投資與貿易協定之變數的觀察上，發現一國若能擴大其國內市場對外的開放程度、鼓勵對外直接投資且減少或消除對資金的控制、亦或與他國或地區簽署貿易協定來減除或調降關稅，對商品甚至產業貿易的全球化或區域化將會有很大的實質幫助，並促進自由貿易的發展。 Globalization and regionalization have become the tendencies and the main features of world economy operation after 1980. These two dispersive and aggregated powers both have important influences in bilateral trade flows between countries. A trade growth of a country has a close connection with its extent of globalization or regionalization in goods and industries. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the prevalent situations of today’s globalization and regionalization to the relations of export and import variations.
The paper uses gravity model covering the period from 1995 to 2005 to investigate trade flows in American electron and textile industries with other 44 partner countries individually. The variables include a country’s gross domestic product, per capita of a country’s gross domestic product, distance between bilateral capitals, a country’s degree of its trade openness, American outward and inward foreign direct investments and trade agreements between American and its partner countries.
According to the empirical evidences of this paper, a country’s gross domestic product and its per capita GDP are the basic factors to grow a country’s trade. Distance variable has shown no barrier to export American electron and textile products, because of being influenced by globalization and regionalization respectively. If a country can broaden its trade openness, encourage foreign direct investment and lower its control to funding, or sign trade agreements with other countries to reduce even eliminate tariff, it will be a great helpful to goods even industry’s tendency of globalization or regionalization, and to stimulate the development of free trade.