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    Title: OECD與APEC諸國總體生產效率與總要素生產力之研究 ─ 共同邊界函數之應用
    Other Titles: A study of production efficiency and rate of total factor productivity growth for the member states of OECD and APEC: a metafrontier function approach
    Authors: 陳盈秀;Chen, Ying-hsiu
    Contributors: 淡江大學產業經濟學系博士班
    黃台心;Huang, Tai-hsin;陳明園;Chen, Ming-yuan
    Keywords: 共同邊界函數;生產效率;總要素生產力;產量彈性;技術缺口比率;Metafrontier function;Production Efficiency;total factor productivity;Output Elasticity;Technology gap ratio
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 01:18:36 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究蒐集1985至2004年OECD與APEC諸國資料,考慮總體經濟變數可能具有非定態性質,建構產出成長率模型,進行生產效率與總要素生產力之研究。將樣本國家區分為四個不同技術群組國家,包括七大工業國 (G7)、非七大工業國 (Non-G7)、亞洲四小龍 (NICs)和非四小龍(Non-NICs),分別進行係數估計,期避免不同群組國家生產技術差異與要素品質異質性,對迴歸係數的影響。接著利用估計的生產邊界函數,分解總要素生產力變動率成為三種成分,探討各成分的重要性。最後,採用共同邊界函數分析法 (metafrontier function approach),估計樣本國家的技術缺口比率與生產效率。
    實證結果發現樣本期間,四群組資本存量與勞動投入的產量彈性平均值均為正,而以NICs群組最高。NICs群組具有規模報酬遞增特性,其餘三群組處於規模報酬遞減階段,生產規模有過大傾向。四群組的生產技術均持續進步中,以Non-NICs群組進步最快,每年平均以3.77%的速度進步,G7群組進步速度最慢;四群組平均技術效率變動率均為負值,以NICs群組惡化情形最為嚴重,平均每年惡化0.95%,G7群組則較輕微。除NICs群組的規模效果為正外,其他三群組的規模效果皆對TFP成長率造成負向影響。四群組的總要素生產力 (TFP) 皆逐年成長,其中NICs群組的成長率名列前茅,平均每年成長3.4%,成長動力為正向規模效果與技術進步,其餘三群組的TFP成長主要泉源,來自生產技術的進步。
    四群組的平均技術缺口比率約介於0.98 (G7群組) 至0.92 (NICs群組) 之間,以G7群組的生產技術水準最為先進,其次為Non-G7群組,NICs與Non-NICs兩群組則差異不大。群組技術效率與共同邊界技術效率的平均值皆以G7群組最高,分別為0.975與0.958,其成員國的實際產出水準約可達群組邊界產出的98%,但僅約達共同邊界產出的96%,其次為Non-G7群組。未來若欲快速提升共同邊界技術效率,G7與Non-G7群組應積極鼓勵企業從事研發活動,不斷提升生產技術,而NICs與Non-NICs群組則應以改善企業管理能力,提高技術效率為當務之急。
    從TFP成長率的觀點,檢視所得收斂假說,NICs與Non-NICs群組的實際產出水準若假以時日,有可能追上先進國家,支持所得收斂假說;觀察共同邊界技術效率,推測Non-NICs群組的實際產出水準隨時間經過可能與Non-G7群組趨於一致,NICs群組的可能性較低。
    This paper proposes a model of stochastic frontier macroeconomic production function, in which all variables are expressed in the form of rate of growth to eliminate the potential nonstationarity of the variables, to estimate the production efficiency and the rate of total factor productivity (TFP) for the members of OECD and APEC during the period 1985-2004. The sample countries are further classified into four groups, i.e., G7, Non-G7, NICs and Non-NICs, and a production frontier for each of the four groups is separately fitted. By doing so, we avoid the adverse impacts of technology differences among groups and input quality heterogeneity on the estimation of the technology parameters. Using the estimated parameters we compute measures of technical progress, changes in technical efficiency, and scale effects, which constitute the measure of the TFP growth rate. Furthermore, this paper applies a metafrontier production function proposed by Battese et al. (2004) to study the technical efficiency across groups of countries operating under different technologies.
    Evidence is found that on average the output elasticity of capital and labor are both positive for each group, and that scale economies prevail in NICs nations, while the rest of the three groups exhibit decreasing returns to scale. The rates of TFP change of the four groups increase over time, in which a maximum average rate amounts to 3.4% per annum for the group of NICs. Tthe scale effect and technological progress are two important sources of TFP growth for NICs nations, whereas the technological progress constitutes the main source of the TFP gain for the rest of the three groups. In addition, the technical efficiency changes are all negative, implying that, on average, the actual levels of production for the countries involved deviate away from the individual production frontiers over time. According to the estimated rates of TFP growth, it is concluded that the outputs of the NICs and Non-NICs states tend to converge toward those of the G7 states.
    Evidence is also found that the mean values of the technology gap ratio vary from about 0.98 (G7) to 0.92 (NICs), implying that G7 countries employ superior level of production technology to the remaining groups. The states of G7 achieve the highest mean technical efficiency score of 0.975 relative to their production frontier and the highest metafrontier technical efficiency score of 0.958, respectively. The results suggest that G7 countries produce, on average, about 98% of the optimal output given the technology available to the group, and around 96% of the potential outputs defined by the metafrontier function. Finally, the difference of the metafrontier technical efficiency between the Non-G7 and the Non-NICs shrinks over time.
    Appears in Collections:[產業經濟學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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