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    Title: The impacts of IPR protection on economic growth, innovation and trade
    Other Titles: 智慧財產權保護對經濟成長、創新及貿易之影響探討
    Authors: 黃奕儒;Huang, Yi-ju
    Contributors: 淡江大學產業經濟學系博士班
    楊志海;Yang, Chih-hai
    Keywords: 智慧財產權保護;經濟成長;創新;貿易;IPRs protection;economic growth;innovation;trade
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 01:16:03 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中文摘要
    在過去20年來,全球智慧財產權保護(intellectual property rights, IPRs)政策開始了一連串重大的轉變。在1994年,世界貿易組織(WTO)訂定了「與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定(Trade Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights, including Trade in Counterfeit Goods,以下簡稱TRIPs)」,其中除訂定智慧財產權保護之「最低標準(minimum standards)」外,並要求各會員國加強智慧財產權保護之執行。此後,全球強化智慧財產權保護的趨勢儼然形成,而有更多的智慧財產權規定更出現在雙邊與區域的協議中。
    而此一智慧財產權保護政策的形成,主要來自於二方面,一是因新技術的興起造成在智慧財產權的保護上產生了新的問題,因此在智慧財產權保護規則上需要不斷的修訂。例如在書籍、唱片普遍以數位化形式出現時,低廉的重製成本配合網際網路的興起使得出版、娛樂產業面臨了嚴峻的挑戰,並需要新的智慧財產權保護規則來維繫產業的生存。二是全球化經濟的發展趨勢使得智慧財產的知識傳遞更加容易跨越國與國之間的疆域,而當先進國家利用其智財密集(IPR-intensive)產品在國外市場攫取更高的利潤時,使這些先進國家更加積極主導全球智慧財產權保護協議的訂定,並利用其經濟實力,要求其他開發中國家強化其國內的智慧財產權保護。
    然而,由於國際間經濟發展程度與貿易政策上的差異,智慧財產權法律的訂定與執行在不同國家間仍存在相當大的差異;而強化智慧財產權保護所產生的效果,在所謂的北國與南國之間也一直存在爭議。雖然已開發國家認為強化智慧財產權保護能鼓勵國際間的技術移轉,並進而帶動國內技術的發展,但部分開發中國家則認為強化智慧財產權保護會傷害其技術進步與經濟成長。這些認知上的差異造成各國對強化智慧財產權政策產生懷疑,因此,本論文的主要目的即希望透過國際間的實證研究,釐清強化智慧財產權保護對不同國家間所產生的影響,並提出政策與執行上的建議。
    Abstract
    International policies toward intellectual property rights (hereafter IPRs) protection have seen profound changes over the past two decades. Since the Agreement of Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), a foundation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), was enacted to set minimum standards of IPRs protection for WTO members, how to strengthen and harmonize the means for protecting IPRs had stimulated great attentions in the arena of international economic policy. The trend of strengthening IPRs protection has been deeply recognized and additional international IPRs rules have been created in various bilateral and regional agreements.
    However, IPRs laws and the enforcement of existing laws differ remarkably across countries due to national differences in economic development and trade policy. The divergence for effects of strengthening IPRs between North and South countries seems to have widened in recent years. Some developing countries argue that an extension of international IPRs harm their technological progress and economic growth. Alternatively, developed countries use the trade policy as a main vehicle for strengthening IPRs across bilateral or multilateral negotiations, implying that stronger IPRs do in fact influence international trade flows.
    Therefore, this dissertation aims to investigate the impacts of strengthening IPRs protection on several important macroeconomic issues, including economic growth, innovation and trade flows, and accordingly provides policy implication and enforcement suggestions.
    Appears in Collections:[產業經濟學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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