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    Title: 大學學習支援中心之分析與規劃 : 以淡江大學大一新生為例
    Other Titles: Analysis and design of student learning support center in higher education
    Authors: 吳亞儒;Wu, Ya-ju
    Contributors: 淡江大學教育科技學系碩士班
    顧大維;Ku, David Ta-wei
    Keywords: 學習支援;學習支援中心;高等教育;大一新生;learning support;learning support center;Higher education;freshman
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 00:37:10 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近幾年,台灣地區大學數量倍增,近百分百的大學錄取率,使高等教育從「菁英教育」轉變成「大眾化教育」,教育資源被分散稀釋,不僅讓高等教育的質與量能否兼顧成為一大課題,大學生們的素質也令人擔憂。大學窄門開放,大量學子進入大學殿堂,學生素質參差不齊,讓教師常常面臨難以教學的窘境。為維持教學品質,學校必須適時提供協助,建立輔導機制以幫助學生們提升學習的品質。特別是針對大一新生初入大學之際,其學習行為與態度會隨著環境做轉變以適應大學生活,高等教育機構若在此關鍵時期給予學習上的輔助,培養並建立良好的學習態度,在未來的學習路上也將更順遂。近年來,教育部為鼓勵大學提昇教學品質,推動「獎勵大學教學卓越計畫」,這項計畫之推動,讓許多大專院校開始重視學生發展與學習輔助等事宜,並且紛紛成相關的組織機構,如教學與學習支援中心、教學發展中心、教學資源或是教學卓越中心…等單位。然而,此類學生學習支援組織的建立,在台灣仍屬於剛起步,許多事項都還在嘗試與摸索的階段,不若國外研究有年,發展之完備。故本研究著眼於探討國內高等教育學生所需要的學習支援需求,特別是針對甫入大學之大一新生,建立一學習支援中心的服務架構,幫助學生解決學習困擾。
    本研究首先以文獻探討方式,探討學生學習問題之議題,以及收集國內外大學學生學習支援中心的建置狀況,建構出學習支援中心的服務架構。再透過大一新生問卷調查,瞭解學生對於學習支援系統,自覺有需求的項目;並藉由與大一導師訪談,從教師面瞭解學生學習中較常出現的障礙與能力不足之處。將三者資料的結論做比較對照,以歸納出學生學習支援中心最佳的建構項目,並使用所歸納出理想的服務架構,與淡江大學學生學習發展組之組織架構做比較,依其異同之程度給予建議。
    本研究結論如下:
    一、根據問卷,大一新生在「語言技巧與方法」中有最高的需求。在學習支援項目需求方面,較高的前十項依序為:第二外語學習的技巧與方法、研究獎學金之補助、上台演說的技巧與方法、撰寫學術報告與論文寫作之訓練、口頭報告和表達的技巧與方法、批判及創意思考能力的訓練、考試準備與應試的策略與方法、注意力集中的策略與方法、書面報告撰寫與製作的策略與方法、研究的組織能力之訓練…等。
    二、透過研究資料的收集與整理後可以歸納出大學學生學習支援中心之架構五面向,包含:
    1.學習技巧與能力培養
    2.學習問題解決與診斷
    3.學習工具與資源
    4.新生輔導
    5.學生轉介服務
    其中學習技巧與能力培養則包含:學習技巧與學習策略、學生個別指導、課業輔導、團體學習;學習問題解決與診斷包含:學習問題診斷與測驗、學習問題之諮詢與建議;學習工具與資源包含:電腦輔助或其他教育科技相關輔助、管理學習相關的輔助工具;所有的項目最後由評鑑項目來瞭解其服務是否妥善,作為服務修改的依據。
    三、利用「新生輔導」提供大一新生於學習上的輔導,包括認識校園、介紹學校學習資源、修課輔導、生涯志向之訂定等。
    四、研究之比對後發現,淡江大學學生學習發展組所承辦的業務與本研究所架構出的服務項目符合的有:「學習技巧與學習策略」、「學習問題之諮詢與建議」、「管理學習相關的輔助工具」、「學生轉介服務」、「電腦輔助或其他教育科技相關輔助」等五項,其餘如「學生個別指導」、「課業輔導」之業務轉交給各系所辦理。「學習問題診斷與測驗」則轉由諮商輔導組負責;「新生輔導」的辦理則涉及多個行政單位,如學務處、教務處,所以淡江大學學生學習發展組並不多安排此項服務。「團體學習」則沒有類似的活動存在。「評鑑服務」則是服務活動較不外顯的項目。
    本研究提出以下之建議:
    一、對淡江大學的建議
    1.加強學生學習服務項目的整合度
    2.整合校內相關學習活動資訊
    3.團體學習的安排與規劃
    二、對學生學習支援中心的建議
    1.與教師保持密切聯繫
    2.學生學習支援服務活動宣傳
    3.整合校園與學生學習事務有關之活動資訊
    三、對未來研究的建議
    1.架構對整體學生的學習支援系統之服務項目
    2.學生學習支援中心之組織行政方面與學校行政層級的探討
    Over recent years, the number of universities has increased quickly in Taiwan. Almost every high school graduate can be a college student, and that shifts the higher education from elite to mass education. Education resources have been diluted and instructors would also have problems to prepare a class for students with diverse entry ability. Therefore, the higher education organizations have to provide proper supports for students in order to maintain the quality of higher education. Especially for freshmen, it’s a crucial moment for them to adapt themselves to the new environment. If students can possess good learning skills and good learning attitude, they would go smoothly everywhere through their learning pathway. Currently, in order to encourage universities to improve the quality of teaching and learning, the Ministry of Education has promoted an “Excellence in Teaching and Learning” program which makes universities and colleges start to emphasize on the affairs of student development and student learning assistance. Organizations such as Center for Teaching and Learning, Center for Teaching and Learning Development, or Center for Teaching and Learning Excellence etc. have been set up. However, unlike some advanced countries with broad research and years practical experiences, Taiwan needs more in-depth researches and examples to establish this kind of organizations that help students improve their learning skills and solve their learning problems.
    This study uses literature reviews, questionnaires and interviews as research methods to collect research information and form a framework for student learning support service. Literature reviews are used to understand the issues of student learning problems and to collect the information and experience of similar organizations from the universities of the United States and Taiwan. Questionnaires are for students to evaluate what they need from the learning support systems. Interviews of the freshmen advisers are used to understand what teachers’ perceptions for students learning problems are. With the results of the three methods above, this study has concluded a framework for building a student learning support center and then compared the framework with the services of the Student Learning Support Section of Tamkang University to see the similarities and differences.

    The results of this study are as following:
    1. The results of questionnaire show that the foreign language skills and methods are needed the most for freshmen. And the others were scholarship, presentation skills, training for research report and thesis writing, skills of oral presentation, training for critical thinking and creativity, strategies for examinations, strategies for concentration, strategies of paper writing, training for organizing and doing research etc..
    2. According to the analysis of literature review, the framework of student learning support center should include 5 functions, the improvement of learning skills and abilities, learning problem diagnosis and solving, learning tools and resources, assistance for freshmen, and referral services to other services on campus. The improvement of learning skills and abilities, including instruction in study skills and learning strategies, tutoring, supplemental instruction, and group learning; learning problem diagnosis and solving has learning diagnostic testing, and learning counseling; learning tools and resources has computer assisted instruction or access to other educational technology, and management of learning material and tools included. Evaluation should be used to check if all the services are satisfactory, and to modify the services.
    3. For helping freshmen adapt to the new learning environment, assistance for freshmen can helps them get familiar with the new learning environment; the assistance can also have introductions to campus environment and learning resources, counsel to course selection, and help them to set up their study and life plan.
    4. In comparison with the framework from this study, the services of Student Learning Support Section of Tamkang University have 5 similarities, including instruction in study skills and learning strategies, learning counseling, management of learning material and tools, computer assisted instruction or access to other educational technology, and referral services.

    This research made the following suggestions:
    1. For Tamkang University: (1) the services for student learning support should be more integrated and unified, and (2) the information about student learning activities should be put together and accessible. (3)Group learning is worthy to give a try.
    2. For a student learning support center:(1) it is necessary to keep contact with advisers constantly;(2) activities related to student learning should be well promoted and (3) have a good integration.
    3. For future research, the research should be expanded to investigate the needs for learning supports for all students in the university, and the administrative matters and the structure of student support center can be further researched.
    Appears in Collections:[教育科技學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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