許多研究指出，根據不同類型的知識而搭配不同教學策略，能夠提高學習成效；亦有許多研究針對知識類型提出適用之圖像設計原則，既然如此，從教學設計的觀點來看，針對相同的知識類型，其教學策略與圖像設計原則必有其對應的關係。然而國內較少研究將這些相關理論加以整合，以至於無法得知其應用方式與成效，故本研究以內容分析法及專家審查，歸納出概念與程序之「對應教學策略之圖像呈現原則」，以平面設計課程為例，分別針對概念與程序類型之教學單元進行實驗，對實驗組施以應用「對應教學策略之圖像呈現原則」之新教材，對控制組則施以原有教材，於教學後比較其教學結果。 研究結果發現實驗組於四次學習成就評量之平均成績均優於控制組，並且有兩次(概念程序各一次)達到顯著差異，而實驗中專家訪談、教師訪談、以及學習者滿意度調查結果也顯示，此「對應教學策略之圖像呈現原則」確實可實際應用於課程單元之設計，並且可協助課程單元針對不同知識類型，輔以適當的圖像類型與呈現方式，依據內容標示重點，適當引導學習者注意力，有助於教師講解與學習者理解，故對其實用性與成效給予正面肯定。 Many researches have concluded that using proper instructional strategies on the correct type of knowledge domains could achieve the high effectiveness of learning. Many studies also involved that how the proper graphic appearance could help to present the different knowledge types. Therefore, from the perspective of instructional design, when facing the same knowledge type, the instructional strategies and the principles of graphic presentation should correlate to each other. However, only a few studies were integrated these related issues, thus, the importance and effectiveness of the matters could not be recognized. As a result, this study employed content analysis and in-depth expert interview as the research methods to induce a “Principles of Graphic Presentation in Teaching Strategies” for conceptual and procedural knowledge.
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the “Principles of Graphic Presentation in Teaching Strategies”, a quasi-experiment has been conducted. The experiment was taken place in a graphic design course and focused on the modules that lectured conceptual and procedural knowledge. The experiment group was instructed with the new materials following “the Principles of Graphic Presentation in the Teaching Strategies”; the control group was treated the original teaching materials. The post-test assessments were conducted after the each module was completed.
The results of the study found that the experiment group performed better than the control group in all four assessments and two statistical significant differences were shown. According to the instructional design expert interview, the instructor interview and the learner survey, the “Principles of Graphic Presentation in the Teaching Strategies” could practically be applied in the course design and was also able to present the right course content with the right graphic types. It could help the instructors to enlighten the learning content and gain the learners’ attention adequately. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the “Principles of Graphic Presentation in the Teaching Strategies” provided the positive effects of the feasible and effective to teaching and learning in the conceptual and procedural knowledge. The researches for the application of the “Principles of Graphic Presentation in the Teaching Strategies” to other knowledge domains are necessary to be conducted in the future.