|摘要: ||本研究針對數位學習遊戲與問題解決策略兩方面結合之教學設計進行探討。研究中乃依據文獻所歸納之「問題解決導向數位學習遊戲（Digital problem-solving learning games, DPLG）」特性與設計流程，由配合之團隊開發一個實驗性遊戲「威廉歷險記」。並依據所歸納出之目標與任務、挑戰性、真實性、探索性、互動性、回饋、競爭與合作、與行動後學習等八項特性，以及分析問題解決歷程與Bloom認知教育目標分類之六大認知層次的關係，採用雙向細目表的方式，提出相關評估指標，做為實際施測之觀察工具。|
This research aims to investigate the instructional design of digital games with problem-solving strategies. Based on related literatures, we induce the characteristics of “Digital problem-solving learning games, DPLG” and the instructional design principles and process. With a group of game development team, we create an experimental game called William Adventure. Eight learning characteristics of digital problem-solving games are found at the end, which include objectives and tasks, challenge, reality, exploration, interactive, feedback, competition and cooperation, and after action review. The characteristics are cross-analyzed with the six cognitive objectives in Bloom’s taxonomy, from which we generate a table of heuristics for evaluation.
Then, expert evaluation on the criteria of game was conducted. Researcher invited elementary school children to participate two task analysis sessions, individual and collaborate gaming. Following with observations and interviews, qualitative data were collected which include gaming paths, behaviors and cognitive activities of learner-and-game interaction. Comparing the results with game’s objectives, the game’s effects on learners’ cognitive abilities are concluded to induce the DPLG design principles.
The research found: (1) Learners’ attention affects their cognitive performance, and the design of game affects learner''s attention. (2) The learning paths present learner''s cognitive status and the analysis of their overall tendencies as well as from various angles can provide further information about learner’s learning style and significances. Furthermore, the order of task presentation can affect the learner’s choice on gaming paths. (3) The learners can not reach high level cognitive capacity is mainly because the flaw of game designs and learners’ attitudes toward difficult tasks. (4) Learners’ old experiences can affect their cognitive performance but are only limited to the depth of application. (5) Peers can help learners to elevate their cognitive abilities, but its level of growth depends on their cooperation pattern. (6) The tasks and content should echo the objectives of the tame so the completion of the tasks can be achieved. (7) Better cues in the game can become good learning scaffolds that can help to elevate learners’ cognitive performances.
Moreover, the design of the digital problem-solving learning games is the key of learners’ cognitive performances. The principles include: (1) Smooth and correct game flow and operation interface. (2) The instructional goal, learning content, challenges should be meaningful and closely link to each other. (3) Design clearly-stated learning goals, as well as level-appropriate challenges. (4) Provide sufficient and easy to use prompt and guiding mechanism in the virtual leanring enviroenment. (5) Give diverse interaction and meaningful feedbacks. (6) The plot is the scaffolds for learning. (7) Learning progress record and documentation functions.
The research concluds that peers are important factors to the success of learning. With appropriate collaboration skills, learners’ cognitive level can have considerable progress.