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    題名: 以問題解決導向數位學習遊戲探究國小學生認知能力
    其他題名: The investigation of digital problem-solving learning games on cognition to elementary school students
    作者: 蘇惠玉;Su, Hui-yu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學教育科技學系碩士在職專班
    施如齡;Shih, Ju-ling
    關鍵詞: 問題解決;數位遊戲;數位學習;認知能力;problem-solving;digital games;E-Learning;cognitive abilities
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:29:18 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本研究針對數位學習遊戲與問題解決策略兩方面結合之教學設計進行探討。研究中乃依據文獻所歸納之「問題解決導向數位學習遊戲(Digital problem-solving learning games, DPLG)」特性與設計流程,由配合之團隊開發一個實驗性遊戲「威廉歷險記」。並依據所歸納出之目標與任務、挑戰性、真實性、探索性、互動性、回饋、競爭與合作、與行動後學習等八項特性,以及分析問題解決歷程與Bloom認知教育目標分類之六大認知層次的關係,採用雙向細目表的方式,提出相關評估指標,做為實際施測之觀察工具。
    其後透過專家評鑑,蒐集觀察指標與遊戲工具之修正意見。並針對遊戲預設之國小中、高年級學童,募集研究自願者,採取個人和同儕合作的方式,以訪談、觀察等質性研究方法,進行共兩次的使用者測試。透過學習路徑記錄、現場觀察與訪談記錄,架構出學習者與遊戲間的互動歷程,並與遊戲預設目標和專家評鑑遊戲工具之意見進行對照,來分析DPLG於學習者認知方面之教學功能,瞭解該實驗性遊戲的教學設計是否發揮其於學習上之功能,進而歸納與驗證DPLG之設計優缺。
    研究發現:(一)注意力影響認知表現,而遊戲設計方式則影響學習者的注意力。(二)學習路徑反應學習者認知狀況,從其整體走向與各種角度可解讀其學習風格與意義。再者,內容呈現的順序影響學習者對學習順序的選擇。(三)學習者未展現高層次認知能力主要受遊戲設計缺失,以及學習者個人對學習困難所持之態度所影響。(四)舊有經驗影響學習者的認知表現,但影響程度會因對其應用層面之深淺而有不同。(五)同儕對學習者之認知能力有提升作用,但成長幅度乃由其合作的模式所決定。(六)關卡內容需呼應預設目標,以促成目標之達成。(七)更完善的遊戲提示將能成為好的學習鷹架,提升學習者的認知能力。
    另外,在問題解決導向數位學習遊戲中,欲讓學習者之認知能力獲得運用與成長,遊戲的設計至關重要,包括:(一)順暢且正確的遊戲流程與操作介面;(二)教學目標、學習內容、與遊戲挑戰應環環相扣且具豐富性;(三)設計清楚的學習目標,以及適合學習者能力的挑戰;(四)在虛擬環境中提供充足且易用的提示與引導機制;(五)給予多元的互動與有意義的回饋;(六)故事情節是學習的鷹架;(七)學習進度的儲存與紀錄等。而研究亦發現,同儕對學習者認知成長有相當大的影響。透過適宜的合作技巧,學習者之認知層次將能有長足之進展。
    This research aims to investigate the instructional design of digital games with problem-solving strategies. Based on related literatures, we induce the characteristics of “Digital problem-solving learning games, DPLG” and the instructional design principles and process. With a group of game development team, we create an experimental game called William Adventure. Eight learning characteristics of digital problem-solving games are found at the end, which include objectives and tasks, challenge, reality, exploration, interactive, feedback, competition and cooperation, and after action review. The characteristics are cross-analyzed with the six cognitive objectives in Bloom’s taxonomy, from which we generate a table of heuristics for evaluation.
    Then, expert evaluation on the criteria of game was conducted. Researcher invited elementary school children to participate two task analysis sessions, individual and collaborate gaming. Following with observations and interviews, qualitative data were collected which include gaming paths, behaviors and cognitive activities of learner-and-game interaction. Comparing the results with game’s objectives, the game’s effects on learners’ cognitive abilities are concluded to induce the DPLG design principles.
    The research found: (1) Learners’ attention affects their cognitive performance, and the design of game affects learner''s attention. (2) The learning paths present learner''s cognitive status and the analysis of their overall tendencies as well as from various angles can provide further information about learner’s learning style and significances. Furthermore, the order of task presentation can affect the learner’s choice on gaming paths. (3) The learners can not reach high level cognitive capacity is mainly because the flaw of game designs and learners’ attitudes toward difficult tasks. (4) Learners’ old experiences can affect their cognitive performance but are only limited to the depth of application. (5) Peers can help learners to elevate their cognitive abilities, but its level of growth depends on their cooperation pattern. (6) The tasks and content should echo the objectives of the tame so the completion of the tasks can be achieved. (7) Better cues in the game can become good learning scaffolds that can help to elevate learners’ cognitive performances.
    Moreover, the design of the digital problem-solving learning games is the key of learners’ cognitive performances. The principles include: (1) Smooth and correct game flow and operation interface. (2) The instructional goal, learning content, challenges should be meaningful and closely link to each other. (3) Design clearly-stated learning goals, as well as level-appropriate challenges. (4) Provide sufficient and easy to use prompt and guiding mechanism in the virtual leanring enviroenment. (5) Give diverse interaction and meaningful feedbacks. (6) The plot is the scaffolds for learning. (7) Learning progress record and documentation functions.
    The research concluds that peers are important factors to the success of learning. With appropriate collaboration skills, learners’ cognitive level can have considerable progress.
    顯示於類別:[教育科技學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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