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    题名: 高中「新興科學技術」學校本位課程發展與實施之評鑑研究
    其它题名: A study of development and implementation of an emerging science/technology school-based curriculum in a senior high school
    作者: 邱瑋芸;Chiu, Wei-yun
    贡献者: 淡江大學教育科技學系碩士班
    高熏芳;Kao, Hsun-fung
    关键词: 科學教育;課程發展;課程實施;課程評鑑;science education;curriculum development;curriculum implementation;curriculum evaluation
    日期: 2008
    上传时间: 2010-01-11 00:28:07 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 行政院國科會科教處為加強科技紮根的工作,在2005年規劃「高中職科學與科技課程研究發展實驗計畫」(簡稱高瞻計畫),強調藉由高中與大學或研究機構建立夥伴關係的方式,改進高中數理及科技課程的教學品質、強化學生的科學素養、並讓學生體驗科學研究工作之樂趣。此計畫積極推動「由下而上」的學校本位課程發展,擺脫傳統「由上往下」的方式,使教師不再僅是課程教材的使用者,而期望教師能自行主導與發展其學校特色的課程,以減少課程理論與教學實務之間的落差。本研究之目的為探討一所執行高瞻計畫之高中教師發展與實施學校本位課程之真實,以深度訪談、觀察與文件分析等方式蒐集S高中(化名)教師在發展與實施「新興科學技術」學校本位課程之歷程,包括課程主題、課程目標、課程內容、教學策略、教學評鑑的訂定與執行等作為與落差,以做為提供課程改進及做為後續創新課程研發的依據。
    本研究發現如下:
    一、課程主題之擬定
    S高中學校本位課程發展原訂的課程主題「綠‧手‧機」,為期望以統整環保、動手做與科學三要素的課程為主軸,但在實際「新興科學技術」課程實施時,教師卻只重視科技與動手做的部分。
    二、課程目標之訂定
    高瞻計畫課程目標的核心理念為以發展創新的學校本位課程,促進學生學習模式的改變,改進教學現況與培養其主動探究的能力與精神,但在這個期望下S高中在實施「新興科學技術」學校本位課程,忽略引導學生進一步的去發現問題的主動探究能力。
    三、課程內容之選擇
    國科會高瞻計畫以科學與科技為範疇,期望高中教師能自行發展學校本位課程,因而S高中「新興科學技術」學校本位課程,其內容的選擇上是以目前政府所推廣的計畫、社會著重的科技,以及選定之教科書內鮮少提及的知識為主,例如奈米、平面顯示器、燃料電池等為主。
    四、教學策略之規劃
    S高中教師認為獲得科學素養的主要途徑為學生主動的參與與動手做,因而在其課程規劃中,特別強調實驗操作部分,這顯示S高中教師雖具備探究教學的基本認知與概念,但卻忽略讓學生能主動發現問題,進行推論、預測與分析的機會。
    五、課程評鑑之執行
    S高中教師利用教學論壇的發表機會,邀請課程與學科專家,針對四門「新興科學技術」學校本位課程進行形成性評鑑,此外,教師似乎較重視自我學科專業知識的成長,至於學生學習成效的結果與利用並未被廣泛討論,這與理想的課程發展必須兼具形成性與總結性評鑑的功能,並期望藉由內、外部人員的溝通、對話與批判,使教師自我釐清課程的優缺點,以提升教師專業知能與課程品質,有所落差,顯示S高中教師對於評鑑的功能與認知,是有待進一步釐清的。
    本研究提出以下建議:
    一、對S高中課程發展與實施之建議
    (一)建議S高中應統整各科「新興科技」,以落實「綠‧手‧機」課程統整的期望。
    (二)建議S高中在課程發展與實施過程中,應加強教師有關課程發展以及課程形成性與總結性評鑑的專業知能,方能落實課程發展與實施之理想。
    二、對S高中教師發展與實施之建議
    (一)課程發展前
    1、 建議教師在發展課程時,以全球未來發展的角度思考應該培養學生具備什麼樣的知識與技能,而非以台灣目前本地所著重的科技為目標。
    2、 建議教師在進行課程發展前,可以先提供學生「新興科學技術」的先備知識,並且讓家長理解「新興科學技術」學校本位課程發展的目的、進行的方式以及學生預期的獲得,以獲得廣泛的支持。
    3、 建議教師透過參與專業成長,透過不同教師的經驗分享,增進課程發展與實施以及評鑑的能力。
    (二)課程發展後
    1、 建議教師在完成課程發展後,可以利用課程評鑑自我檢核表、教師同儕評鑑表或是透過外部專家評鑑,蒐集更多自我改進的文件與證據,除了可用來自我省思專業知能外,並能作為改善課程發展與實施品質的依據。
    2、 建議教師在進行課程發展後,透過參與協同成長團體與工作坊的機會,提供課程發展的結果,除可獲得不同學科或他校教師的建議增進自我課程發展與評鑑的能力外,並可作為修正課程的參考。
    (三)課程實施前
    1、 建議教師在進行課程實施前,可以先提供學生相關的課程知識,使其具備應有的先備知識,以縮短課程講解的時間。
    2、 建議教師在進行課程發展前,讓家長理解「新興科學技術」學校本位課程實施的目的、進行方式與學生預期的獲得,以獲得學生與家長的認同。
    (四)課程實施後
    1、 建議教師在課程實施後,應透過學生的學習成效評量進行自我反思,以改進教學。
    2、 建議教師進行專業發展,特別是有關加強學生推論、預測與分析等科學探究學習的能力,以培養學生真正科學探究的素養與能力。
    三、對於未來研究建議
    (一)可進一步的探究影響課程發展與實施落差之因素。
    (二)可進一步針對參與高瞻計畫之所有學校進行課程發展與實施的跨個案研究。
    (三)可進一步針對教師之課堂教學與學生的科學探究學習成效進行研究。
    In order to enhance the learning of emerging science and technology at Taiwan, the Department of Science Education in National Science Council initiated a so called “Project of High Scope” since 2005. It emphasizes the establishment of the partnership between senior high schools and universities or research organizations to improve the quality of teaching in science through the development of new school-based curriculum. The school-based curriculum is intended to actively promote the “bottom up” curriculum development model which empowers teachers to work out professional autonomy. However, in order to reduce the gap between theory and practice, it is expected that teachers can deeply theorize the purposes of curriculum and actualize their ideal of instruction by themselves. The study applies case study techniques such as observation, interview and archive analysis to come to a holistic interpretation of the emerging science-technology school-based curriculum development and implement progress. The study also tries to understand the factors associated with the gap between realities and ideals from perspectives of five teachers in S High School. The results of the study provide suggestions for the further curriculum development and implementation of the case school as well as the improvement of the quality of “High Scope Project”.
    The conclusions of the research are summarized as follows:
    1. Topic of the curriculum
    The original curriculum topic decided for S High School was the integration of “green/hands-on/machine”. However in reality, the implementation of the curriculum by teachers was only emphasized on the techniques of science experiment.
    2. Goal of the curriculum
    The goal of the curriculum set up by the “High Scope Project” is to promote the science literacy for students, improve the present teaching and cultivate inquiry ability of the students. But when the teachers of S High School implemented the emerging science-technology school-based curriculum, they neglect to lead students to inquire the questions actively.
    3. Content of the curriculum
    The content selected for the emerging science-technology school-based curriculum of S High School stressed on the current innovation of science and technology which proposed by the government and society and was not covered by the textbook, such as nanometer, light emitting diode and fuel cell.
    4. Teaching strategy
    Hands-on learning was considered by the teachers of S High School to be the most effective way for acquiring scientific literacy. Therefore, the instructional design specially emphasized on the science experiment. However, when teachers executed their teaching, for some reasons they did not provide students with opportunities to inference, forecast and analysis.
    5. Evaluation of the curriculum
    The ideal curriculum development should include formative and summative evaluations. But the teachers did not have knowledge on the function of evaluation, and thus only emphasized on their own professional growth. They considered to rely on the external experts to conduct formative and summative evaluations for them.

    The suggestions are summarized as follows:
    1. For S High School
    (1) It is suggested that the school should integrate all emerging technology to fulfill the goal of curriculum integration.
    (2) It is suggested that school should enhance teachers’ professional knowledge on both formative and summative evaluations.
    2. For teachers of S High School to develop and implement the curriculum
    (1) Before the curriculum development
    i. It is suggested that teachers should consider cultivating their students with knowledge and ability for the scientific inquiry.
    ii. It is suggested that teachers should provide students with fundamental knowledge for emerging science-technology and inform their parents about the purposes and process of curriculum development.
    iii. It is suggested that teachers should enhance their own knowledge and ability on curriculum development and evaluation.
    (2) After the curriculum development
    i. It is suggested that teachers should conduct internal evaluation and external evaluations on their curriculum through checklist.
    ii. It is suggested that teachers can share publicly the curriculum developed by them to gain the ability of curriculum evaluation.
    (3) Before the curriculum implementation
    i. It is suggested that teachers should provide students with prior knowledge on emerging science technology.
    ii. It is suggested that teachers should inform students’ parents to understand the purposes, process and learning outcomes of the curriculum.
    (4) After the curriculum implementation
    i. It is suggested that teachers should use learning achievement of students to reflect on their own teaching.
    ii. It is suggested that teachers provide opportunities to enhance students’ ability of inference, forecast and analysis.
    3. For the future research
    i. There is need to investigate factors affect curriculum development and implementation.
    ii. There is need to study the curriculum evaluation and implementation of all schools granted by “High Scope Project”.
    iii. There is need to investigate causal relationship between teachers’ teaching and students’ learning outcomes.
    显示于类别:[教育科技學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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