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    Title: 高中科學探究教學之個案研究:以一個新興科技探究模組課程實施為例
    Other Titles: A case study of scientific inquiry teaching of an innovative technology and science inquiry curriculum in a senior high school
    Authors: 楊詩敏;Yang, Shih-min
    Contributors: 淡江大學教育科技學系碩士班
    高熏芳;Kao, Hsun-fung
    Keywords: 科學探究教學;教學設計;教學實踐;scientific inquiry teaching;Instructional Design;teaching enactment
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 00:24:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究之目的在探討台北高中(化名)參與「新興科技探究課程」之四位教師其「植物的生殖生態」、「燃料電池基本原理與實驗」、「天文觀測與CCD攝影」及「液晶顯示原理與實驗」模組課程之教學設計與科學探究教學的實踐現況。透過個案研究的方法,以觀察、訪談以及文件分析等方式進行資料的蒐集,並以教學設計、科學探究教學等相關理論為基礎進行資料分析。
    本研究將教師科學探究之教學設計分為「分析」、「設計」、「發展」、「執行」及「評鑑」等五個面向進行探討;而將教師科學探究之教學實踐分為「學習者主體性」、「教師提問引導」、「學生科學探究能力之提升」、「多元化評量」及「科學探究程度」來進行分析說明。研究結果發現如下:
    一、教師教學設計:台北高中教師在教學設計中具備有「分析」、「設計」、「發展」的概念,但仍欠缺「執行」、「評鑑」的教學設計相關規劃。教師多以自身專長、學生專題計畫需求、現有學校設備以及教學資源作為教學主題的考量,並利用校園中相關之教學環境進行教學設計,發展出「新興科技探究課程」之教學計畫表、學習單、學習手冊、投影片等教學材料,並擬以個人學習單以及同儕互評表作為評量的工具。然而教師似乎忽略「科學探究」的重要性,因此在教學內容規劃中有關提升科學態度層次的教學較少。此外,教師對實際執行教學的時間亦未有事先的規劃,評鑑上多注重總結性評鑑的執行,忽略形成性評鑑及教師自我的評鑑。
    二、教師教學實踐:台北高中教師重視學生的想法,會以鼓勵的方式來引導學習者主動發現問題並提出問題。教師也知道要善用提問來讓學生思考,利用合作學習的方式讓學生進行學習活動,並知悉要利用多元化的方式來評量學生的學習。然而在教學過程中,部分教師主導性仍強烈,對於「問題」的屬性以及「提問」的技巧並不熟習,且由於教師自身於評量能力上的缺乏,因此無法將評量工具、評量準則與教學目標做連結來有效評量學生,而是希望藉由外部評鑑的方式來協助以彌補足自身在評量相關知能的不足。此外,也因為教師對於教學方法的認知與教學時數的限制,導致教師無法有效進行系統化的探究教學活動。
    本研究提出以下建議:
    一、對台北高中教師的建議
    (一)對教師教學設計的建議
    1.教師進行教學設計前應先對學習者進行分析,以了解學生實際的需求。
    2.教師應參與進修課程、同儕教學視導、協同教學或行動研究以了解自我教學現況,並可透過讀書會閱讀、討論與科學探究教學、評量等相關的知識。
    3.教師應著重教學目標、學習目標的分析與設計,並強化課程設計的連結性與統整性。
    4.教師應著重教學設計中執行與評鑑階段的規劃,以提升教學效能。
    (二)對教師教學的建議
    1.教師應以引導式或開放式的科學探究教學來進行教學活動,並進行多元化的評量。
    2.教師應以長期且逐步漸進的教學來培養學生的探究能力。
    3.教師應拋開升學的迷思,以學生科學探究能力培養為主要的教學目標。
    4.教師應多鼓勵學生主動提問,並提供學生自我省思及評量的機會。
    二、對未來研究的建議
    1.可針對教師教學及學校本位課程開發之成效做進一步的探討。
    2.可針對學生科學探究之學習成效做進一步的探討。
    The purpose of this study was to investigate scientific inquiry teaching of four teachers who participated in designing and implementing an Innovative Technology and Science Inquiry Curriculum in Taipei High School (pseudo name). Data collection techniques, such as observation, students/teachers interviews and document analysis were applied in this qualitative case study. The interpretation was generated based on the analysis of theories of instructional design and scientific inquiry teaching.
    Instructional design was divided into five parts in this study: analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. Teaching enactment was analyzed in five elements: learner induction, teachers’ questioning, students’ scientific inquiry abilities, alternative evaluation and levels of scientific inquiry. The conclusions of the research were summarized as follows:
    1.Teachers’ instructional design: The teachers have gone through “analyses”, “design” and “development” during the instructional design process. However, “implementation” and “evaluation” were not completed for their instructional design. Most teachers made their instructional design decisions based on their own professional discipline, students’ college entrance needs, facilities and equipments resources available in the school. Besides, the teachers used a lot of materials already developed for their school environment for teaching. They also expected to use individual writing assignments and peer-evaluation as the learning assessment tools. It seemed that teachers were not really familiar with the essence of scientific inquiry teaching and did not really know how to implement the teaching process. Neither did they consider the formative evaluation of their instructional design, nor did they master the assessment techniques and measurement criteria of student learning.
    2.Teaching enactment: The teachers at Taipei High School did encourage students to find out problems and ask questions. They also respected students’ opinions and used questioning technique to guide students learning. Besides, they employed “cooperative learning” to teach students and used alternative assessment to assess students learning. However, most of the teachers dominated a leading role in the classroom and they were not familiar with the questioning skills and types of questions. The teachers also lacked of assessment skills, so they were not able to select appropriate assessment tools to match with the assessment criteria. Moreover, because of the constraints of teachers’ knowledge of varieties of teaching method and school time schedule that teachers were not able to implement systematic scientific inquiry teaching effectively.
    The suggestions are summarized as follows:
    1.For the teachers at Taipei High School
    (1)In terms of instructional design
    a.It is suggested that teachers have to analyze the learning needs and learners before they start to design the curriculum.
    b.It is suggested that teachers need to understand their teaching circumstances by taking parts in professional growth such as advanced studies, teaching supervision, team teaching or action research. Besides, it is suggested that teachers equip themselves with the knowledge and skills of scientific inquiry teaching and assessment by means of reading and discussing with their peers.
    c.It is suggested that teachers should align learning objectives of each teaching units with the entire goal of the innovative curriculum.
    d.It is suggested that teachers should acquire knowledge and skills on the “implementation” and “evaluation” stages of instructional design, in order to enhance their teaching effectiveness.
    (2)In terms of teaching enactment
    a.It is suggested that teachers can use guided or opened inquiry teaching techniques as well as alternative assessment approaches for their teaching.
    b.It is suggested that teachers should have a comprehensive and progressive inquiry teaching plan to cultivate students’ inquiry abilities.
    c.It is suggested that teachers should avoid misconception of the only purpose of higher school teaching as college preparation and focus on cultivating students’ inquiry abilities.
    d.It is suggested that teachers have to encourage students asking questions voluntarily and provide the opportunities for students to reflect upon and evaluate themselves.
    2. For the future research:
    a. There is need to investigate the effectiveness of scientific inquiry teaching and school-based curriculum development.
    b. There is need to investigate students’ learning outcomes on scientific inquiry learning.
    Appears in Collections:[教育科技學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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