本研究之主要目的有五：一、探討競爭力意涵與相關理論及其在教育上的應用；二、分析美國私立大學的競爭力及其競爭優勢；三、探討我國私立大競爭力的現況及其困境；四、建構提升我國私立大學競爭力的條件；五、歸納研究結果並提出具體建議，以供相關單位作參考。因此，根據大學排名指標將影響私立大學競爭力的因素分為五個面向:財政資源、學術水準、教學品質、學生素質及國際化程度。並以此五個面向來分析美國私立大學之競爭力與競爭優勢作為改進我國私立大學競爭力之依據，再以此五面向比較我國公私立大學競爭力之差異及中美兩國私立大學競爭力之差異。 為達上述目的，本研究係以訪談法為主要方法，並以私立大學校長及行政人員、專家學者及教育行政主管為訪談對象，進行調查研究。期能藉由訪談過程瞭解受訪者對當前國內私立大學如何提升競爭力之看法，藉以印證文獻探討之發現，或補強其不足之處。 最後，綜合文獻與訪談調查所得之資料，獲得以下的結論： 一、影響私立大學競爭力的因素是質量兼具。 二、美國私立大學具備競爭力的主要原因為政府角色及豐富財源。 三、我國公私立大學之間競爭力的差距正逐漸縮小。 四、財政資源的多元性會影響私立大學的競爭力。 五、提升私立大學的學術水準首先應釐清學校的定位。 六、改善私立大學的教學品質應建立監督及獎勵機制。 七、學校對學生的培養成效是影響學生素質的關鍵因素。 八、提升私立大學的國際化程度應建立辦學特色。 九、政府應該扮演的角色為「監督者」與「輔導者」。 The purposes of this study are: 1. to inquire into the meaning and theories of competitiveness and to query how to apply it to education; 2. to analyze the competitiveness and competitive advantages of private university in U.S.A.; 3. to understand the condition and perplexity of private universities in Taiwan; 4. to establish the methods to promote the competitiveness of private universities in Taiwan; 5. the concrete recommendations are proposed to relevant institutions basing on the results of this study. According to the indictors of university rankings, the factors that affect the competitiveness of private universities are: financial resource, academic level, teaching quality, and students’ essential and internationalized level. On the basis of these five factors, this research analyzes the competitiveness of private universities in U.S.A. and compares the differences not only between public and private universities in Taiwan, but also between the private universities of Taiwan and U.S.A. To achieve the purposes above, the main method of this study is interview survey with interviewees including presidents and faculty of private universities, scholars, and official of educational authority. In terms of data from literature review and interview survey, conclusions have been reached as follows: 1.The factors that affect the competitiveness of private universities are quantitative and qualitative. 2.The main competitiveness of private universities in U.S.A. are financial resources and the roles that government plays. 3.The gap of competitiveness between public and private universities in Taiwan is reducing. 4.The multiple financial resources affect the competitiveness of private universities. 5.In order to promote academic level, private universities have to recognize the orientation of school previously. 6.The teaching quality of private universities can be improved by establishing the mechanism of supervision and reward. 7.It’s the training of school to students that affect the students’ essential primarily. 8.building up the features of private universities to upgrade the internationalized level. 9.The roles that authorities have to play are “supervisor” and “guide” in promoting the competitiveness of private universities.