基於同儕關係是兒童期重要的發展任務，小學須在兒童入學之初予以關心並善加輔導，因此本研究探討小一學生同儕關係的發展狀況及其相關之因素，俾能提供學校教師充分了解並積極關注小一學生的同儕關係發展，促進良性的親師溝通，並作為學校行政安排級任教師之參考。 本研究以臺北市乙所國小30位小一學生為研究對象，以非參與式自然觀察法為主，採時間抽樣、不定時觀察，每週二次進行入班觀察，每次40分鐘；每週二次進行課間觀察，每次10分鐘，觀察記錄小一學生課堂表現及課間同儕互動的情形。除觀察外，本研究兼採訪談、問卷調查及社會計量方法，藉以多方面了解並分析小一學生之同儕關係及其發展狀況。依據研究結果之分析，歸納研究結論如下： 一、小一學生在同儕關係的發展中，並不具有明顯的發展階段特徵。 二、在同儕發展的起始狀態中，接近性(即學生座位安排)是影響同儕關係的主要因素，接近性較高則有利於增加同儕互動的機會，促進同儕關係的發展。 三、小一學生會因熟悉性(即學生們的共同興趣)的因素，而形成班上的次級團體，且成員間關係緊密、穩定發展。 四、能力(學業成就)及個性(愉悅的人格特質)為小一學生人際吸引的主要特徵，具備此特徵的小朋友，其同儕關係之質與量的發展較佳。 依據上述結論，本研究對學校行政及班級教師提出多項建議，以供新生輔導與班級經營實務之應用；對於未來後續研究之對象、內容與方法，本研究亦提供建議以供參考。 Based on the belief that children must establish good peer relationship from the beginning of schooling and the elementary school has the responsibility to help children to fulfill their developmental task, this study was to explore the development and its correlates of peer relationship among first graders in an elementary school, with an intention to help elementary school teachers be actively aware of the peer relationship among the first graders so as to cultivate better peer relationship among pupils in class. It was also attempted to provide implications for school administration to be better in teacher assignment. This study adopted methods of non-participant natural observations (time sampling, random observations with 40 minute-class observations and 10 minute-recess observations each twice per week), interviews, questionnaires and social measurement to examine and analyze the peer relationship among thirty first graders. The findings were as follows: 1.There were no obvious staged characteristics of the development of peer relationship among first graders. 2.Proximity (seat arrangement) was the main factor which increased the opportunity of mutual communication and benefited initial peer relationship among first graders. 3.Subordinate groups with close and steady relationship sprouted on the base of familiarity (mutual interests). 4.Ability (academic achievement) and personality (affability and benignancy) were the characteristics for interpersonal attraction; children with these characteristics develop better peer relationship. Based on the findings, this study provided suggestions and implications for school administrators and classroom teachers to improve peer relationship among first graders. This study also provided suggestions in subjects, contents and methodology for further research.