團體諮商在台灣廣為應用，而團體「僵局」的處理對諮商效能更具關鍵性影響。從過去研究發現，「僵局的因應」與「自我調整」間有著緊密的關係。因此，本研究旨在探討團體諮商專家與新手於團體僵局中之自我調整情況與其差異，透過質性研究之深度訪談法，以半結構訪談大綱，對兩位團體諮商專家與兩位新手進行訪談，並參考自我調整內涵分類表進行分析，期能瞭解團體諮商專家與新手因應僵局之自我調整與其差異，以提供團體諮商專業效能發展之參考。研究結果統整出團體諮商專家與新手之自我調整構圖及如下「九大向度」： 一、角度：專家較關注團體發展，新手較關注自我表現是兩者最大差異之一。 二、順暢度：自我調整歷程能否順暢連結是專家與新手最大的差異之二。 三、連結度：能否將僵局與團體主題連結是專家與新手最大的差異之三。 四、深度：表徵問題的深層程度影響自我調整的覺察、判斷與反思。 五、準確度：對僵局問題的解構、辨識與建構上，專家較新手準確而迅速，但也各有不同的假設偏誤。 六、速度：專家與新手自我調整的歷程以及目標設定、行動與修正的速度受到程序性知識的影響。 七、力度：專家的意志力與執行力有助於目標的達成，新手會因目標不具體而影響其執行。 八、彈性度：專家自我調整的彈性與創意優於新手，兩者的學習皆有助於專業成長，但重點有所不同。 九、情緒溫度：專家受僵局的情緒衝擊比新手小，新手較熱切地尋求自我的改變。 最後研究者根據研究結果提出數點建議，提供團體諮商專家與新手在專業發展與訓練以及未來研究的參考。 Group counseling is fairly common in Taiwan. The ways of dealing with interpersonal impasses in group are especially influential to the effect of group counseling. Based on past research, reaction to interpersonal impasses is strongly connected to self-regulation. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to explore the differences between an experts and novices when coping with self-regulation among interpersonal impasses. Through quality research based on in-depth interviewing, this research uses semi-structured as guideline to interview two experts and two novices group counselors; analyze based on the self-regulation chart and furthermore discover and comprehend the differences between experts’ and novices’ when coping with interpersonal compasses, which can further provide professional recommendations to the development of group counseling. The research result consists of nine points: I. Angle: experts concentrate more on group development whereas novices focus more on self performance. II. Continuance: whether or not self-regulation process can be coherent is one of the main differences between the experts and novices. III. Coherence: whether or not interpersonal compasses can be connected to the topic of the group is also another difference. IV. Depth: the depth of the presentation of the dilemma affects the awareness, judgment and introspection. V. Accuracy: In terms of structure, identification, and construction of impasses, experts are more accurate and quick than novices while mistakes can also be made because of stereotypes. VI. Speed: The procedure knowledge has a different degree of impact on the experts and novices especially on the speed of self-regulation process, goal establishment, action control and revise. VII. Strength: Experts’ endurance and motivation help them with reaching the goal whereas the novices are affected by the lack of their objective. VIII. Flexibility: While both experts’ and novices’ learning help their professional growth, their focuses are different. The experts are generally more flexible and creative than the novices. IX. Emotions: The experts are emotionally influenced by interpersonal compasses less than novices. Novices are more likely to seek self changes.
The thesis finally provides a few suggestions based on the research results, which assist group expert counselors and novice counselors in professional development and training and guide to future research.