|其他題名: ||Evolving containment policies under truman and eisenhower administrations|
|作者: ||戴欣宇;Tai, Hsin-yu|
李本京;Lee, Thomas B.
|關鍵詞: ||圍堵政策;杜魯門政府;艾森豪政府;韓戰;國家安全會議第68號文件;Containment Policy;Truman administration;Eisenhower Administration;Korean War;NSC 68|
|上傳時間: ||2010-01-11 00:07:59 (UTC+8)|
This thesis intends to examine the evolution of containment policy by the U.S. against the communist bloc from the 50’s to the 60’s, i.e., from Truman administration to Eisenhower administration. It is observed that the essence of containment strategy had evolved from pointed containment to comprehensive containment during Truman administration and the later strategy of comprehensive containment was then adopted by Eisenhower administration. There were factors such as Korean War, Communist China’s involvement in the Indochina war, Chinese mainland’s complete disregard of international norms, and the ensuing U.S. concern for its prestige that had effected the shift from asymmetric containment to symmetric containment. But underlying these factors were the division of labor between Communist China and the Soviet Union that led the policy-makers to change their perception on basic international structure. In other words, George Kennan’s containment was based on a bi-polar international structure. But as Communist China began to play an increasingly aggressive role in Asia, the U.S. was forced to concentrate more resources in even the originally peripheral areas such as the Korean peninsula, Indochina, and the Taiwan Strait, making Kennan’s concept of asymmetric containment unfit to the evolving international environment and was therefore replaced by Paul Nitze’s version of comprehensive containment-NSC 68. The conception of “comprehensive containment” was then followed by the administration from a different party. It was obvious that the change of policy was not a result of change of administrations or of different political parties’ orientations, but by change of perceptions of top policy-makers on basic international structure. As their perception evolved, policy-makers recruited new crews to shape new guidelines for implementation. Containment is a general policy idea that can be shaped into different directions.
There was no doubt that the Soviet Union was the prime enemy of the U.S.; however, all the hot wars were fought in Asia and the enemies against the “free world” were mostly supported by Communist China. Communist China’s belligerence was seen by U.S. policy-makers as another main source of threat, forcing it to adjust its Kennen-style Europe-first pointed containment to Nitze’s comprehensive containment by gradually shifting strategic weight to Asia. Communist China, as a regional superpower, took a corresponding polar position through its heavy involvement in the threatening activities in its neighborhood. Compared with communist China, Soviet Union, as an established member of the superpower club, was relatively refrained in its foreign policy and behavior. This made communist China’s outward behavior even more belligerent and threatening.
It is assumed that there existed an emerging tri-polar structure in the cold war era. In terms of its geographic location, size and population, more revolutionary ideology, and wars it directly and indirectly engaged, China was no doubt an emerging threatening polar. The shift to a comprehensive containment was a response to an emerging power with a real threat.
It is noted that foreign policy guidelines of a certain time tended to guide policy directions and their implementations for that certain period. As guidelines were molded by perceptions, perceptions were shaped by the evolving international structure.
Besides the examination of containment policies molded by perceptions on international structures, the thesis also studies the implications of various containment policies to the Taiwan Straits to support its arguments. The author was obliged to use the theory of international structure to elaborate the impact produced by evolution from a bi-polar system to a tri-polar system and the theory of alliance to explain the considerations and implementations affecting the alliance behaviors in the U.S. containment policy.
As containment policy’s legacy still lingers, it is worthwhile to reexamine its meanings and implications.