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    題名: 美國青少年吸食大麻之研究(1960-1979)
    其他題名: The marijuana use of youth (1960-1979)
    作者: 魏妙娟;Wei, Miao-chuan
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美國研究所碩士班
    李本京;Lee, Thomas B.
    關鍵詞: 大麻;青少年;次文化;嬉皮;搖滾樂;Marijuana;Teenagers;Subculture;Hippie;Rock-n-roll
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:07:36 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 吸食大麻的風氣本侷限於小眾人口,但是在一九六○和一九七○年代濫用大麻之風氣在青少年間盛行,也形成了一種特有且普遍的社會現象。而這項社會現象與反抗文化和當時的社會背景有很大的關係。受到嬉皮文化和風起雲湧的社會運動影響,青少年將吸食大麻視為反抗權威的象徵,來對抗主流價值和權威體制,抑或是將使用大麻視為尋求神秘體驗或精神探索的途徑。
    在本文第一部分探討青少年大麻次文化的形成,分析嬉皮文化還有搖滾樂所代表之反抗文化,對成千上萬的青少年的影響,造成青少年價值觀的重大改變。除此之外,當時的反越戰運動也和青少年吸食大麻文化的形成關係密切,反越戰抗議和運動的場合中吸食大麻成為反抗的象徵。而媒體的炒作和二次大戰戰後嬰兒潮的環境,造成當時人口結構以年輕人居多,加上前述因素的作用與影響,造成此股風潮。
    第二部分則分析青少年吸食大麻之心理因素和文化背景因素,對青少年個體影響,其中以青少年所屬之大麻次文化影響最大。若青少年涉入大麻次文化越深,則越有可能去吸食大麻。因此再進一步探討兩種大麻次文化不同的傳統,一種是較為娛樂性質的,另一種則是具有超越意義的用藥經驗。其次發現吸食大麻對青少年所造成之問題,並未像刻板印象想像般中嚴重,雖有較為自由主義且反對傳統價值特色,但在課業、政治和其他表現方面,並無造成太大差異。
    第三部分則是著重在因應此風氣的影響,政府和社會上所作之改革。青少年濫用大麻的人數迅速地攀升,引起當時政府的高度重視,以改變政策方向並成立「全國大麻與藥物濫用委員會」(National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse),期望能消退青少年吸食大麻的流行。而大麻除罪化的呼聲和保守家長團體則是兩股不同的力量,拉扯著大麻政策和立法。此後相關政策趨於保守嚴格,但社會對大麻法律上的爭議仍不斷,現今青少年使用大麻的情況還很普遍。
    The custom of smoking marijuana was limited to some small groups at its first development. However, the widespread use of marijuana among teenagers at 1960s and 1970s became a unique social phenomenon. This phenomenon was deeply affected by the social background and associated closely with counterculture at that time. Influenced by the hippie culture and social movements, the teenagers regarded marijuana smoking as the symbol of anti-authority against mainstream values and the establishment, or used it to search for mystic experience and spiritual exploration.

    The first part of this thesis is to discuss the formalization of teenagers’ marijuana subculture and to analyze how the counterculture, mainly the hippie culture and rock-n-roll, influenced thousands of teenagers. Moreover, the movement of anti-Vietnam war had close relation to the formalization of teenagers’ marijuana smoking. Marijuana smoking had become common and inevitable in many anti-Vietnam war occasions. Also, the media reporting at that time enlarged the population of marijuana smoking among teenagers, and the baby boomer after World War II contributed this phenomenon.

    The second part of this thesis is to analyze the psychological factors and personal background factors in marijuana smoking among teenagers. Among those factors, marijuana subculture had the greatest influence on individual teenager. The more deeply one teenager involved in marijuana subculture, the more likely he or she used marijuana. There were two different kinds of marijuana subcultures. One was recreational, and the other was transcendental. Both of the two brought different influences on teenagers at that time. Moreover, it was found that the problems following marijuana smoking were not as serious as what was generally thought. Even although those teenagers were more liberal and anti-traditional, it made little difference on their performance at school, politics, etc.

    The third part of this thesis is to discuss the influence of this atmosphere and the reform from the government and the society. The population of teenagers who abused marijuana was rising higher and higher and it drew a lot of attention of government and founded National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, trying to reduce the widespread use of marijuana among teenagers. However, the groups for marijuana decriminalization and conservative parental groups were two opposite sides and went on lobbying the marijuana policy and legislations from two different stances. Later on, the marijuana laws turned to be more conservative and stricter. However, the disputation of marijuana laws continues and it’s still common for teenagers to use marijuana nowadays.
    顯示於類別:[美國研究所] 學位論文

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