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    Title: 季辛吉於以阿衝突中之角色研究
    Other Titles: Henry kissinger in arab-israeli conflicts : yom kippur war and step-by-step diplomacy
    Authors: 林秉緯;Lin, Bing-wei
    Contributors: 淡江大學美國研究所碩士班
    李本京;Lee, Thomas B.
    Keywords: 季辛吉;以阿衝突;贖罪日戰爭;漸進式外交;以埃隔軍協定;以敘隔軍協定;Henry Kissinger;Arab-Israeli Conflicts;Yom-kippor War;Step-by-Step Diplomacy;Sinai I Disengagement Agreement;Syria-Israeli Disengagement Agreement;Sinai II
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 00:06:55 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文的研究目的在於了解季辛吉個人的思想及國際戰略觀如何運用在一九七三年至一九七六年美國對中東地區的政策,以及其所帶來的影響。而主要的探討重點有三項。第一、在全球戰略的架構下,季辛吉如何看待美國的中東戰略;第二、季辛吉如何讓埃及、敘利亞這兩個與以色列發生四次戰爭的國家願意與以色列簽訂正式的停戰協定;第三、季辛吉在他的回憶錄中說:「所有在中東地區的人將了解唯有透過美國才能達到真正的和平。」他是否讓蘇聯在中東地區的影響力減少了呢?

    從尼克森上任總統之後,他的外交政策受到了季辛吉很大的影響,而他們兩個之間的互動也主導了美國當時的外交方針。而他們的概念有三個主要部分:一、與蘇聯機中國保持一個低盪(Détente)的局勢;二、與其他的主要強權合作以達到一個結構上的和平;三、以尼克森主義(Nixon Doctrine)做為處理區域問題時的指導方針。中東地區由於它的地緣位置接近蘇聯,加上豐富的石油資源以及以阿之間的衝突使得美國不得不扮演一個積極的角色。而中東地區也提供了一個絕佳的場地讓美國實驗所謂的尼克森主義,以色列在一九七零年的約旦危機中幫助約旦國王胡笙擊敗巴勒斯坦解放組織的游擊隊是一個證明。在尼克森與季辛吉的戰略設計中,全球性的低盪與區域性的尼克森主義的結合需要蘇聯在一些區域危機中合作。在中東地區這代表了加強美蘇兩國在低盪的策略下各自限制自己的勢力範圍。而與此同時,在尼克森主義的保護傘下,季辛吉主要的目的是保持美國在當地的優勢,並且削弱蘇聯的利益及影響力。

    在贖罪日戰爭之後,季辛吉的漸進式外交策略成功地說服以色列以及阿拉伯國家相信美國的公正無私。美國可以在不危害以阿雙方的利益與安全的狀況下,在隔軍協定的談判中成為一個正直的協調者。的確,季辛吉的外交策略降低了歷史上的以阿衝突中的最重要的特點 - 雙方的心理障礙。季辛吉也小心謹慎地讓談判的過程維持在美國的主導下。除此之外,在贖罪日戰爭後他的持續不懈的中東外交努力提升了美國與阿拉伯國家的關係到石油禁運能夠真正地結束。
    The purpose of this thesis is to explore how Kissinger used his personal thoughts and perceptions on international strategies to influence American’s policies toward Middle East during 1973 and 1976, including the attendant impacts. There are three main themes in this thesis: first of all, within the context of international strategic framework, in what way did Kissinger evaluate and assess the strategies of Middle East? Secondly, in what way did Kissinger persuade Egypt and Syria which had four different wars with Israel to accept Disengagement Agreements with Israel. Third, in his memoirs, Kissinger declared that the only way to peace is through United States. Did he really decrease the influences of Soviet in the Middle East?

    Since Richard Nixon became the President of the United States, his foreign policies had been influenced deeply by Henry Kissinger, and their interactions also became the directions of American policies. Their concepts had three main parts: first of all, keeping détente situations with Soviet and China. Second, cooperating with other powers to acquire a structural peace. Third, utilizing Nixon Doctrine as the direction of coping with regional conflicts. Because the geopolitical position of Middle East is close to Soviet - plus abundant oil resources and Arab-Israeli conflicts - United States definitely has to play an active role. After the breakout of Yom Kippur War in October 1973, and during the negotiations of Disengagement Agreements, Kissinger successfully persuaded Israel and Arab countries believe in the integrity of the United States. Definitely, Kissinger’s strategies reduced the main characteristic of Arab-Israeli Conflicts - the psychological barriers of both sides. Kissinger also carefully let the processes of negotiations under the auspice of the United States, and his strenuous efforts enhanced the relations between America and Arab countries to end oil embargo.
    Appears in Collections:[美國研究所] 學位論文

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