故本論文第一章除説明研究動機、目的、限制與範圍外，第二章在介紹女權運動背景、包艾莉提倡第十九條憲法修正案之淵源，及非暴力抗爭理論與方法之介紹。第三章則以包艾莉的三個組織，作為研究的三個領導時期，分析她推動修憲提案過程中，不同非暴力抗爭策略的運用。第四章主要在分析當時社會反對婦女獲得投票權原因，所面臨的困境為何，以及包艾莉如何轉變國家領導者對婦女議題的態度。第五章結論，則歸納包艾莉的領導特色為何，成功與否，及包艾莉在「第十九條憲法修正案」通過後對女權之貢獻與意義。 In 1920, American women were granted the right to vote by the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. It took over 70 years for Suffragists to win their battle. Suffrage was generally evaluated to attribute the contribution of women during World War I but the influence of suffragists’ work.
The purpose of this thesis intends to understand and explore Alice Paul’s contribution to American suffrage movement. Alice was born in a well-to-do Quaker family with strong religious belief of gender equality. She was mostly known as a leader of Equal Rights Movement instead of a suffragist who solidified her goal of women’s rights as her life time work after working with British suffragette. After her returning to America, she adapted the essence of British militancy and American civil disobedience to create her leading strategies.
She continually formed three women organizations that aimed to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. Her leading style of militancy is a classical noncooperation, nonviolent civil disobedience. But her protest was not against any specific persons but the whole social and governmental structure. Alice Paul’s strictly non-violent programs included suffrage parades, picketing, burning the President’s words on democracy in urns, or even sending organizers out west to campaign against all congressional candidates of the “party in power.”
In this thesis, chapter one explains the motivation, purpose and framework of this study. Chapter two discusses the brief history of suffrage movement, personal background of Alice Paul, essence of civil disobedience, and strategies of nonviolent struggle. Chapter three analyses how Alice Paul successfully uses nonviolent civil disobedience strategies to create publicity to achieve her cause. Chapter four discusses the anti-suffragists’ interest and Woodrow Wilson’s changing attitude. Chapter five is to sum up the characteristic of Alice Paul’s nonviolent struggle and evaluates her contribution for American women.