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    题名: 美國女權運動者包艾莉與第十九條憲法修正案之研究
    其它题名: American suffragist Alice Paul and the nineteenth amendment
    作者: 謝佩芸;Hsieh, Pei-yun
    贡献者: 淡江大學美國研究所碩士班
    李本京;Lee, Thomas B.
    关键词: 包艾莉;激進戰鬥精神;非暴力抗爭;公民文明抗命;第十九條憲法修正案;Alice Paul;suffrage movement;civil disobedience;non-violent struggle;and militancy
    日期: 2006
    上传时间: 2010-01-11 00:06:12 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本論文主要研究美國婦女公民投票權由來,包含婦女投票權運動及國家制憲過程。美國婦女要求平等權利的由來已久,婦女認為男女不平等的原因,在於尚未獲得公民投票權,因此十九世紀末二十世紀初美國第一波婦女運動,以爭取公民投票權為主要範疇。而年輕的女權鬥士包艾莉(1885-1977),則是於一九一三至一九二○年間力促國會通過修憲提案的關鍵人物。

    包艾莉奉獻一生力爭女性平等權,多數人所對她的認識多半只是「女性平等權利憲法修正案」起草人,但鮮少人注意到她同時也是鼓吹婦女投票權的重要人物。「第十九條憲法修正案」賦予女性投票權,規定全國不得因性別剝奪婦女投票權。歷史學的角度認為,女性獲得投票權,在於國家回饋婦女對第一次世界大戰的貢獻,但卻忽略當代女權運動者的努力,特別是包艾莉的激進領導。

    來自教友會家庭的包艾莉,從小根深蒂固兩性平等觀念,宗教所賜予的信念以及求學階段所接觸到的女權思想,促使包艾莉成為真正的女權鬥士。基於全國最大女性組織提倡投票權的速度緩慢效率低,包艾莉分別創立三個組織,以激進戰鬥精神為號召,目標在通過修憲提案。她憑著對美國憲政體制的了解,及參與英國激進女權運動的實際經驗,並結合美國公民文明抗命精神與非暴力抗爭思想,衍生出一套獨特的激進戰鬥與非暴力策略,用以激發廣大輿論,利用第三者的力量改變現狀。因此以近代的觀點來看,當時包艾莉的先進與前衛的領導作風與女權思想,可謂為女權先鋒。

    故本論文第一章除説明研究動機、目的、限制與範圍外,第二章在介紹女權運動背景、包艾莉提倡第十九條憲法修正案之淵源,及非暴力抗爭理論與方法之介紹。第三章則以包艾莉的三個組織,作為研究的三個領導時期,分析她推動修憲提案過程中,不同非暴力抗爭策略的運用。第四章主要在分析當時社會反對婦女獲得投票權原因,所面臨的困境為何,以及包艾莉如何轉變國家領導者對婦女議題的態度。第五章結論,則歸納包艾莉的領導特色為何,成功與否,及包艾莉在「第十九條憲法修正案」通過後對女權之貢獻與意義。
    In 1920, American women were granted the right to vote by the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. It took over 70 years for Suffragists to win their battle. Suffrage was generally evaluated to attribute the contribution of women during World War I but the influence of suffragists’ work.

    The purpose of this thesis intends to understand and explore Alice Paul’s contribution to American suffrage movement. Alice was born in a well-to-do Quaker family with strong religious belief of gender equality. She was mostly known as a leader of Equal Rights Movement instead of a suffragist who solidified her goal of women’s rights as her life time work after working with British suffragette. After her returning to America, she adapted the essence of British militancy and American civil disobedience to create her leading strategies.

    She continually formed three women organizations that aimed to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. Her leading style of militancy is a classical noncooperation, nonviolent civil disobedience. But her protest was not against any specific persons but the whole social and governmental structure. Alice Paul’s strictly non-violent programs included suffrage parades, picketing, burning the President’s words on democracy in urns, or even sending organizers out west to campaign against all congressional candidates of the “party in power.”

    In this thesis, chapter one explains the motivation, purpose and framework of this study. Chapter two discusses the brief history of suffrage movement, personal background of Alice Paul, essence of civil disobedience, and strategies of nonviolent struggle. Chapter three analyses how Alice Paul successfully uses nonviolent civil disobedience strategies to create publicity to achieve her cause. Chapter four discusses the anti-suffragists’ interest and Woodrow Wilson’s changing attitude. Chapter five is to sum up the characteristic of Alice Paul’s nonviolent struggle and evaluates her contribution for American women.
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