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    題名: 多元文化主義的論辯與實踐 - 1970年後墨西哥裔移民的國家認同
    其他題名: Multiculturalism in the United States: national identity of Mexican immigrants since 1970
    作者: 黃逵玉;Huang, Kuei-yu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美國研究所碩士班
    紀舜傑;Ji, Shun-jie
    關鍵詞: 多元文化主義;國家認同;墨西哥裔移民;multiculturalism;national identity;Mexican Immigrant
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:05:45 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 70年代開始,多元文化主義隨著60年代民權運動的鼓舞與啟迪,以及美國國內的許多的族裔、弱勢群體們,追求自我認同、自我權力的同時也開始嶄露其頭角。而其訴求的正是,任何一個族裔群體與文化不應該或必須去掩蓋它者與自己;同時每一個族裔群體得保持著對自身文化的認同。社會提供了多種文化的平等、交流、保存的平台與條件,然而最終達成群體的和諧與認同。
    這種保留各族裔原汁原味的想法,有人將之比喻為一道內容豐富的生菜沙拉並與當下的大熔爐形成對比。即是各族裔文化不應再受融化與強迫性的同化,轉而更重要的是社會上不同階級與族裔之間的公平性與代表性,並以此理念轉化為國家分配資源的政治過程與產出物。
    於此後美國國內開始出現了對多元文化主義的論辯,主要的思考焦點分布於多元文化主義是否打破了美國傳統的同化精神?人民對於國家認同是否會因之而分化?如生活在美國國內的各族裔保存自我文化,那又何謂美國文化?等等的懷疑。
    同樣也是發生在70年代的開端,美國國境內湧入大量的墨西哥裔移民,以驚人的數量與速度進入國境內。墨西哥族裔相較於美國而言代表著全然不同的文化、語言、生活習慣,以及族裔認同,而此即本文探討的重點。多元文化主義本身的理念對於幫助墨裔移民融入新環境的短程過渡期,與長程的形塑國家認同的幫助與影響。
    本文內容以介紹國家認同的概念為開端,接續介紹多元文化的意義與其在美國國內的論辯與實踐。而墨裔移民在移入美國境內之後,他們的背景、過程與社經地位將有助於了解墨裔移民於美國國內的生活現況,並最後以多元文化之思想、實踐政策與其對墨裔移民的美國國家認同之影響作結。
    最後得出關鍵在於多元文化主義如何幫助墨裔移民多與美國社會接觸。並且需要解決的主要問題是,第一,提升墨裔移民教育程度與英語能力。第二,消除環境上的偏見與歧視問題。當移民與國家還有國家內的一切呈現良好的互動,那麼國家認同自然會產生,多元文化主義與其政策如能提供一切平等、互相尊重、不帶偏見和歧視的遠景,那麼對於墨裔移民與美國社會正常化的接觸,還有墨裔移民分享美國國家認同程度是會有其幫助的。
    From the 60’s, Civil Rights Movements along with lots of ethnic and minority groups in the United States started to pursuit their right, identity and self-approval. Multiculturalism was ignited by this momentum and started to gain power during 70’s. Multiculturalism sought that any ethnic groups and cultures should not be covered by each other. Simultaneously each ethnic group should maintain their own cultural identity and self-approval. The society had to provide many kinds of cultural exchange and preserved platform, and then achieved the harmony and identification of the whole community.
    This is so different from melting pot. Someone described multiculturalism as a salad bowl which represents diverseness. Therefore all kinds of ethnic groups and cultures should not assimilate into one. Instead their fairness and representation in the whole society are more important. This is also the same idea of multiculturalism political process and policy.
    The debates had started to go on, since the idea of melting pot been overthrown. Debates mainly focused on the principles whether multiculturalism had broken the spirit of assimilation. What is the identity of American, if every immigrant can preserve their own culture?
    It was also happened in 70’s, when massive Mexican immigrants crowded into the border of United States with astonishing quantity and speed. Mexicans compare with Americans is a totally different cultural, linguistic, and racial group. So do their habits and customs. Then this thesis will focus on if multiculturalism can help Mexican immigrants accommodate to the new country and to shape their new national identity in the United States.
    The article concluded with two findings: In order to keep Mexican immigrants in touch with the U.S. society constantly, we should promote their education attainment and English ability. Second, eliminates the prejudice and the discrimination in the U.S, society. When immigrants and the society present good interactions, the share of national identity will be easier. If multiculturalism can provide the evenness society, and civics in the society show respect to each other, it will help Mexican immigrants share the national identity in the United States.
    顯示於類別:[美國研究所] 學位論文

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