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    題名: 台灣小學生看迪士尼「花木蘭」的文化認知 : 一個多元文化教育的行動研究
    其他題名: Cultural awareness in Disney's Mulan for the elementary school students in Taiwan : an action research on muticultural education
    臺灣小學生看迪士尼花木蘭的文化認知 : 一個多元文化教育的行動研究
    作者: 葉桂伶;Yeh, Guei-ling
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美國研究所碩士班
    林文韵;Lin, Wen-yun
    關鍵詞: 迪士尼;花木蘭;文化認知;多元文化教育;多元文化兒童文學;Disney;Mulan;Cultural awareness;Muticultural education;Muticultural Children's Literature
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:05:42 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 一九九八年美國迪士尼公司推出第三十六部經典動畫長片「花木蘭」(Mulan),故事內容是改編中國宋朝郭茂倩所編《樂府詩集》之〈木蘭詩〉而來,上映前五週,即為迪士尼賺近一百萬美元,是繼一九九四年推出的「獅子王」以來,人氣最旺的人物,然而迪士尼對「花木蘭」的詮釋,卻引發褒貶不一的評價。首先,大眾文化(mass culture)與後現代主義(post-modernism)一派認為,電影「花木蘭」提升中華文化的傳播性、帶給觀眾歡樂、體現西方文化的思想-女性主義與個人主義、呈現電影美學之極致;然而,多元文化論述的學者可不這麼認為,他們以文化原真性(cultural authenticity)與文化正確性(cultural accuracy)的觀點評述,認為在新世紀聲光媒體不斷創新之下,兒童的讀本不再僅限於「紙本」,兒童往往先接觸影視媒體,才閱讀文本,學校教育甚至為了引起學生的學習動機與興趣,經常採納迪士尼的動畫電影融入各科教學中,特別是語文課程。他們從多元文化教育的觀點出發,認為迪士尼保裹著童話的糖衣,實際上傳遞的是西方資本主義的價值與意識型態。「花木蘭」作為一個以中國文化為題材的動畫電影,無法呈現古代中國文化的原真性,兒童年齡尚小,心理發展與價值建立的過程中,易受外力駕馭與動搖,特別像是迪士尼推出的動畫電影,視覺與聽覺效果俱佳,以華麗歌舞,可愛逗趣的小動物,幽默詼諧的手法,輕易擄獲兒童的目光,臣服於迪士尼形塑的綺麗幻想中,無形中吸納迪士尼傳遞的意識型態(Disney ideology)以及對中華文化的錯誤訊息,影響兒童文化價值觀的建立,因此,兒童欣賞迪士尼動畫電影「花木蘭」,父母與教師有必要檢視電影如何處理多元文化(multi-culture)與文化差異(culture difference)的問題,導正片中錯誤的觀點。

    基於大眾文化與後現代主義一派對電影「花木蘭」的評述是普羅大眾較為熟悉觀點,又,研究者於2004年7月至2005年6月於台北縣快樂國小(假名)實習,為帶給實習班級有別於快樂國小現行多元文化教育的實施模式,以及研究者本身的好奇,遂以迪士尼動畫電影「花木蘭」為題,進行一個多元文化教育的行動研究。

    本論文的研究目的在於探討研究對象對美國迪士尼動畫電影「花木蘭」的看法,能否覺知迪士尼對於中華文化的偏見、刻板印象與錯誤詮釋,藉由研究者的引領,學生能以中華文化原真性(authenticity)與正確性(accuracy)兩種視角檢視「花木蘭」,未來亦最少能以「文化原真性」與「文化正確性」兩種向度處理類似的議題。鑑於美國迪士尼處理「花木蘭」這個多元文化的議題,忽視中華文化的原真性與正確性,期望學生能藉由此次「文化學習與國際理解」融入教學中,啟發學生「文化自覺」與反省批判的能力,發展出個體多元文化的價值觀,未來面對多元文化的議題時,不僅是國內本省與外省、漢民族與少數民族(原住民)、台灣與外國,能以尊重、欣賞、包容與「同理心」的心態,處理人際間與國際間文化差異的問題,放棄本位主義,勇於查證事實,避免刻板印象,消除偏見與歧視,增進不同文化之間的和諧,培養一個宏觀的世界觀。

    以下,依照本研究關注之問題,歸納研究結果作成結論如下:
    一、研究者尚未介入的情況下,學生「未能」覺知迪士尼動畫電影「花木蘭」對中華文化的偏見、刻板印象與錯誤詮釋。
    二、隨著教學活動的發展,學生已逐漸能以中華文化原真性與正確性兩者向度評析迪士尼動畫電影「花木蘭」。
    三、本教學活動研究對象「文化自覺」的轉變,在於文化自覺由「內隱」到「外顯」的展現。
    四、以「花木蘭」為例,研究對象能提出未來面對「多元文化」與「文化學習與國際瞭解」的議題時,應秉持「尊重」、「欣賞」、「包容」與「同理心」的態度。
    五、針對「多元文化」與「文化學習與國際理解」的精神,學生能兼容並蓄,同時習得東西方的文化思想,以文化同理心,理解迪士尼製作小組詮釋「花木蘭」的緣由,並重新檢視自身文化的內涵,擴充認知經驗,拓展文化視野。
    On June 8, 1998, the Walt Disney Company released the 36th animated film Mulan, which is an adaptation based on a Chinese poem, usually known as The Legend or The Ballad of Mu-lun. This poem, by an anonymous writer of the Southern and Northern dynasties (A.D. 420-581), has been popular for generations in China and was collected in Yuefu, the Song dynasty compendium of lyrics, songs and poems. As Disney’s Mulan is an adaptation of a legendary story remotely set in ancient China, it raises issues such as the authenticity and accuracy of Chinese culture values and facts. Critique has it that the issues of cultural authenticity and cultural accuracy become particularly important if the purpose is to evaluate the film Mulan as an art/literary work for young viewers and to investigate its influence upon children in terms of multicultural education. Particularly under the circumstances of the innovation and development of this century’s media, children’s literature has not been confined to paper books. Children often watch video tapes before they read a story if there is one available. Schoolteachers usually adopt Disney’s animated films as a motivating approach to usher children into the world of classic children’s literature. Therefore, it is crucial for schoolteachers and parents to take Mulan seriously and carefully whether to incorporate into school’s curriculum. Educators should be alert to the offensive, racially-coded language and cultural clichés presented in Mulan and discuss the stereotype and cultural distortions in Mulan with children.

    Consequently, the purpose of this action research includes: (1) to investigate students’ opinions toward Disney’ Mulan. Can they be aware of the stereotype, distortions and misinterpretations of Chinese culture in “Mulan”? (2) to guide students to analyze and deconstruct Mulan in the perspectives of cultural authenticity and cultural accuracy so as to inspire students the importance of Chinese cultural awareness. (3) Seeing that Disney’s treatment of Mulan can not reflect the authenticity and accuracy of Chinese culture seriously and honestly, students should take this case as a profound lesson, that is to say, try not to misinterpret or distort when dealing with multicultural issues. An attitude with respect, admiration, and heart always alike is needed when facing any micro or macro cultures if the purpose is to enhance students’ cultural learning and global understanding and establish a harmonic world in the long run.

    The major findings of this study are given as follows:
    1. Students can not be aware of the stereotype, distortions and misinterpretations of Chinese culture in Mulan before the researcher intervenes to inspire them the importance of Chinese cultural awareness.
    2. As the development of activities, students can analyze and deconstruct Mulan in the perspectives of cultural authenticity and cultural accuracy little by little.
    3. Students’ cultural awareness has changed from the state of invisibility to visibility.
    4. To take Mulan for example, students can present a positive and constructive attitude to cope with multicultural issues.
    5. As to the core value of multiculturalism, cultural learning and global understanding, students can gain the knowledge of both eastern and western philosophical concepts at the same time, that is to say, understand the reason why Disney animators interpret Chinese legendary story Hua Mu-lan in this way in “Mulan” and re-examine their awareness toward Chinese culture so as to expand their cultural experience and field of vision.
    顯示於類別:[美國研究所] 學位論文

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