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|Other Titles: ||National rifle association and anti-gun campaign|
|Authors: ||陳依新;Chen, Yi-hsin|
李本京;Lee, Thomas B.
|Keywords: ||全國步槍協會;槍枝管制;軍火業;National Rifle Association;gun control;firearms|
|Issue Date: ||2010-01-11 00:05:12 (UTC+8)|
根據研究槍枝管制的知名學者史派哲(Robert J. Spitzer)指出「槍枝是否應該管制」的問題以一種「憤怒(outrage)─反應(action)─反撲或再反應(reaction)」的模式在「循環」，稱之為「槍枝運動的循環」。首先發生了令社會大眾「憤怒」的槍殺案件，接著反槍團體便會開始對「槍枝應該管制」進行一系列的「反應」動作，如向國會議員施壓使其能提出槍枝管制的法案或街頭抗議遊行活動等，而在槍枝管制法案出爐時，這時以全國步槍協會為首的擁槍團體則會對槍枝管制法開始「反撲」亦即對反槍團體的訴求展開一系列的反制，主要方法就是透過協會本身的強大勢力影響國會議員和其組織的會員，在國會議員方面，透過大量政治獻金的贊助促使國會議員與其立場一致和高度動員會員的草根力量來強化對國會議員的遊說能力；協會會員方面，提供良好的會員福利、豐富的槍枝資訊和專業的槍枝安全訓練使其對協會的向心力強大；而在軍火業方面，則是藉由提供大量的廣告版面替其宣傳而達到利益共享之目的。
The United States of America’s unique gun culture is a product of the country’s colonial past and national development. Due to the Supreme Court’s ambiguous definition of the word militia in the Second Amendment of the Bill of Rights, pro-gun lobbyist argue that the word militia refers to all citizens. Thus they believe that each and every citizen has the right to bear arms in order to prevent the government from abusing its power. On the other hand, anti-gun groups, assume that militia refers to a group of citizens authorized, by the state, with the power to stand against the federal government’s centralization of authority. Consequently, this unclear definition of gun control has become a very controversial issue and has turned out to be a serious cyclical problem in America.
Robert J. Spitzer, in his research on gun control, points out that this cycle is one of “outrage-action-reaction”. The cycle of outrage, action, and reaction usually begins with the sensational and the horrific. The shooting deaths of Senator Robert F. Kennedy and the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr., both in 1968, were more recent instances when public outrage over deaths caused by guns prompted a significant reaction; the subsequent passage of the federal Gun Control Act of 1968. Building on popular outrage, anti-gun groups pressed for stronger gun laws in Congress and many state legislatures. They also protested in public in order to achieve their goal: gun control. They met with only some success. The outrage-action-reaction cycle is symptomatic of the fundamental value conflict at the heart of the gun issue.
Pro-gun groups, spearheaded by the National Rifle Association (NRA), have fought all of these efforts. These forces were mostly successful in blocking gun control measures in the states and at the Federal level. Their success has mainly been due to the powerful leverages they can impose financially or through other means such as political support. For the sake of getting legislators to stand with them on the same pro-gun issues, the NRA has offered a good deal of election money to support their elections and using its high indigenous organization strength to reinforce the function of persuading the legislators. As for club members, the NRA provides generous welfare, copious gun information and professional training in order to gain devotion. Furthermore, the NRA promotes its products and ideals through commercial avenues such as magazines and commercials free of charge to the firearms industry thus gaining further strong backing.
This paper will focus on the first cycle of outrage-action-reaction with strong emphasis on effects of the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the Firearm Owners Protection Act of 1986. Furthermore, the buildup, operation and conflicts of the NRA are examined for realizing its effective power. Finally, the NRA’s role in the first cycle is analyzed for its importance in the anti-gun campaign.
|Appears in Collections:||[美國研究所] 學位論文|
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