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    題名: Thomas jefferson's missouri controversy: generational sovereignty and slavery
    其他題名: 傑佛遜的密蘇里爭議:世代主權與奴隸制度
    作者: 朱文章;Chu, Sydney Wen-jang
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美國研究所博士班
    陳一新;Chen, Edward I-hsin
    關鍵詞: 共和主義;世代主權;奴隸制度;聯邦;Republicanism;generational sovereignty;slavery;Union
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:05:05 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 1819年密蘇里地區向美國國會提出加入聯邦的請求,引起國會議員爭辯,並形成美國歷史以及憲法史上的「密蘇里妥協」。在此之前,美國各州在國會議事,皆在追求本州或本地區利益。開國先賢如傑弗遜等深知地方主義對彼等辛苦締建的聯邦並無裨益,故極力消弭之。1800年後南方共和黨人在傑佛遜、麥迪遜、門羅等帶領下長期執政,有效地消弭北方聯邦黨對新共和的離心,在憲法相關規定未臻明確的情況下,苦心經營,保全了聯邦的統一。

    但1812年對英第二次戰爭之後,開國第一代以及第二代的參政者多出身律師,對不斷變動的國家利益,以及領土日益拓展產生的國家定位有所爭議,並以國會作為戰場,以密蘇里案中的奴隸制度作為議題,對憲法、共和體制以及南北分歧等,進行熱烈爭辯,並以妥協案結束爭議。

    開國元勳當中,傑佛遜對本案反應最為激烈,認為密蘇里爭議是「深夜的火警聲」,是危害共和「開頭的章節,而非結束」。他奉行「世代主權」觀念,提倡現存的一代,不可債留子孫,危害下一代的幸福;而下一代也要秉持相同精神,為下下一代的幸福做努力。本論文發現,在傑佛遜眼中,國會議員達成妥協,訂出阻擋密蘇里加入聯邦的憲法先例時,這些國會議員坐實了傑佛遜1789年致麥迪遜函中所倡言的,死去的一代向活著的人(密州人民)宣戰,剝奪了他們的幸福。本案不僅是美國第二代不珍惜開國先賢傳承下來的寶貴遺產,更是既存的各州,為了自己的利益,危害新進各州(未來子孫)利益的例子。因為這個妥協案背叛了美國開國的共和精神,因而在傑佛遜眼中,這些國會議員必須承受「背叛全世界希望」這個罪名。
    Before the Missouri Compromise, Americans found that each state, or region, desired different policies that would benefit it specifically. Jefferson realized that it would be improbable, if not impossible, to have states with different interests agree on issues to pass effective legislation. Had the Republicans not in power after 1800, northern states in all likelihood would have maintained their own sectional interest structure and remain unconcerned with that of its neighbors unless conflict arose. It was at best unwise to let the distinct states to have their own way in the Union. The Republicans did, despite outstanding political theory that stipulated that republic government could not be maintained in regions greater than city-states, whatever they could to keep the Union together. But the changing interests caused by wars and expanding landscape eventually challenged the two generation’s perception toward each other and toward the Constitution, or the revolution legacy, itself during the Debate.
    Few things caused Jefferson more consternation than the Controversy, which Jefferson considered the “firebell in the night” and that the Compromise would “reprieve only, not a final sentence”. Missouri, to him, was the example of how Americans posterities may not sustain legacy of the fathers; it was also the example of how interest of one state or region suppressing new states, the future generations. This article reveals when congressmen set up a precedent to check the admission of Missouri, the dead (disguised by the forms of municipal law as Jefferson mentioned in his letter to Madison in 1789) waged a war on the living generation in Missouri and these congressmen thus bore a greater responsibility for the “treason against the hopes of the world”.
    顯示於類別:[美國研究所] 學位論文

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