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    题名: 經濟全球化下歐洲聯盟科技合作的發展
    其它题名: Development of science & technology cooperation in European Union under economical globalization
    作者: 林京瑋;Lin, Ching-wei
    贡献者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    郭秋慶;Kuo, Chiu-ching
    关键词: 經濟全球化;歐盟;科技合作;科技政策;European Union;Science& Technology Cooperation;Economic Globalization;EU RTD Policy
    日期: 2008
    上传时间: 2010-01-11 00:04:51 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 經濟全球化的時代下,「科技研發」成為提升各領域的競爭力-如資訊、通信、環保、安全、外交等-的重要工具,其重要性已不容忽視。有鑒於此,歐盟便在科技政策的形成中,引導歐洲科技發展由純科學轉變為工業科技政策,再轉變為科技研發政策。歐洲科技合作自戰後便開始,而歐盟在擴張自己的權力同時也以政策逐步主導歐洲的科技發展,並在其後的科技合作計畫、科技框架計畫、資訊策略研究計畫、太空合作計畫中,逐漸影響歐洲國家科技發展的方向。

    在科技政策的演進及科技發展的過程中,歐盟面臨許多問題:由科技政策帶領歐洲科技發展,是否較各國單獨發展科技有益?科技政策究竟擔任何種角色,並且能夠發揮到何種功能?藉由科技政策的帶領,便能有效提高歐洲科技發展的水準和速度嗎?政策由上而下推動科技發展,勢必遇到與國家利益、市場利益相衝突的困境,而歐盟在決定以政策決定各國的科技發展方向時,便不斷的面臨到這些問題的考驗。

    本論文檢視歐盟科技合作發展的歷史及歐盟在當中的角色,並藉由數個歐盟主導和非歐盟主導的科技合作計畫,觀察歐盟在經濟全球化的環境下如何統整歐洲科技發展的方向以提升全球競爭力,並探討科技政策對科技的發展能發揮的功效與意義。在科技發展必須由下而上、由市場需求推動的情況下,歐盟擔任協調者和整合者的角色,對於真正推動科技的發展和競爭力,市場及企業的實力仍是關鍵;然而科技政策對消除歐盟內部科技差距、提升就業率和培育高科技人才仍有重要的影響,因此在科技發展的過程中,科技政策亦能發揮統整合作資源和人力的功效。
    Innovation of Research & Technology Development became a crucial element to enhance the competitiveness of diverse sectors such as information and technology, environmental protection, security and foreign policy etc. under the circumstance of Economic globalization. The formation of EU RTD Policy thus shifts its focuses from scientific research to industry technology, and gradually from information technology to innovation policy. During the process of EU extending its power of Research Policy, and thus steers R&D development with several means such as "European Co-operation in the Field of Science and Technology" in 1971,"Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development" since 1984, European Strategic Programme in Information Technology in 1984, and finally 2003 Galileo Project on European Satellite Navigator System.

    Nevertheless, on the path of extending its power, EU confronts challenges: does it work better to build technology cooperation on EU level rather than respective national level? As what role does EU RTD Policy act, does it help or hinder to motivate RTD innovation? Does "top-down" model stimulate growth and competitiveness of EU? To stimulate the development of technology and innovation, EU confronts conflicts of EU interests and market interests all the way.

    The thesis thus focuses on the history of EU RTD policy and the intention EU steering the course of Technology development, in the meantime observes the efficiency of RTD policy. It concludes that market demand which stimulates motivation of technology and innovation from a "bottom-up" process, in which entrepreneurship and market act as essential actors; RTD policy acts yet as an "important" subordinate role which eliminates the disparity of technology ability of member states, enhances the employment rate and breeds more researchers. To sum up, EU RTD policy acts as an indispensable supporting role.
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