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    題名: 亞當.史密斯與信任 : 市場經濟的道德基礎
    其他題名: Adam Smith and trust : the moral foundation of market economy
    作者: 廖祺財;Liao, Chi-tsai
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    林立;Lin, Li
    關鍵詞: 亞當.史密斯;信任;亞當.史密斯問題;國富論;道德情操論;Adam Smith;Trust;Adam Smith Problem;Wealth of Nations;The Theory of Moral Sentiments
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:04:48 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 從美國安隆的財報作假案,到台灣博達的掏空公司案;從中國大陸的黑心產品泛濫,到台灣的詐欺事件頻傳,我們周遭的市場竟充斥著如此眾多欺騙的交易活動,而搞得社會大眾人心惶惶、不知所措。面對這種種的自由市場亂象,被譽為「經濟學之父」的亞當.史密斯就成了眾人歸咎的對象。因為他不但是「自由經濟」的主要推手,而且在《國富論》中所論述的「自利」、「看不見的手」、「競爭」等概念,更被視為是導致市場亂象的主要元兇。事實上,除了《國富論》外,亞當.有史密斯還有一本重要的著作《道德情操論》,而亞當.史密斯不但是一位出色的經濟學家,也是一位傑出的倫理道德學家;而他這兩部著作間的相互關係,長久以來一直未被人們正確的理解。

    部分德國的學者認為,亞當.史密斯在《道德情操論》的「同情」與在《國富論》的「自利」是相互矛盾的概念,即所謂的「亞當.史密斯問題」。事實上,「亞當.史密斯問題」是對其兩部著作的誤解所引起的,「亞當.史密斯」問題其實並不存在。而亞當.史密斯在《道德情操論》中的所強調的「謹慎」、「正義」與「仁慈」等美德,才真正是《國富論》中人們自利行為的重要基礎。

    在瞭解亞當.史密斯《道德情操論》與《國富論》的相互關係後,我們必須指出:一、經濟學原屬於道德哲學領域;二、道德教育在商業社會的重要性;三、企業經營必須重視企業倫理的價值。因此,我們必須重新重視亞當.史密斯這兩本著作之間的關連性,亦即法蘭西斯.福山所指出的,人類唯有具備了市場經濟交易過程中的道德文化因素-「信任」,整體社會才能有細密的勞動分工、順暢的交易活動及生活福祉的增進。
    Adam Smith is famous for his masterpiece "Wealth of Nations" (WN, 1776), but only few people know about his another book "The Theory of Moral Sentiments" (TMS, 1759). In fact, according to his biography, we realize TMS is prior to WN. Adam Smith is not only an economist but also a moral philosopher. For decades, the connection between TMS and WN is not well understood by many people.

    Some German scholars pointed out that Adam Smith''s "sympathy" in TMS contradicts with "self-interest" in WN and that''s so-called well-known "Adam Smith Problem" in philosophy field. But after doing some literature reviews, we find Adam Smith''s TMS and WN are not inconsistent. The virtues of "prudence", "benevolence" and "justice" in TMS are the essential bases of "self-interest" in WN.

    "Trust" is another important point in Adam Smith''s thoughts. The idea of "trust" which Francis Fukuyama mentioned and discussed in his book is also from Adam Smith. Fukuyama indicated that "trust" could lower transaction cost and extend transaction order in market economy and is beneficial to the economic growth. We could conclude as follows with Adam Smith’s legacies: (1) Economy originally belongs to moral philosophy. (2) Moral education is necessary in commercial society. (3) Enterprises must emphasize business ethics.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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