台灣於2008年1月12日正式邁出選舉制度改革的第一步，在第七屆立法委員選舉將原本複數選區單記非讓渡選舉制度改為單一選區相對多數選制與比例代表選舉制度的混合制，正式落實了多年來欲改革之選舉制度成為單一選區兩票制。然而，因為首次採用之選舉制度究竟是否適合台灣，從選舉後之結果來看確實發現許多目前選舉制度之缺失。例如：國會議員職權的地方議員化、每個選區人口數不均及各縣市行政區等級大小不一與選區造成的妥適性問題與因為採用此選制產生選票與席次的比例性偏差等問題。 而德國正是將單一選區相對多數選制與比例代表選舉制融合的創始國，但也因為德國所採取之制度為聯立制，與台灣目前之並立制在制度之根本精神有不同，因此，筆者將德國選舉制度做一比較之準。 本論文之研究方法採用比較研究法，輔以歷史研究途徑，先由兩國選舉制度之演變切入，再討論上述三個台灣在本次採用新選舉制度下的缺失，與德國對照選舉產生之結果對照，進而討論兩國選民在因應此一選舉制度下的投票行為及對於政黨政治產生至政治效果。在論文最後則是提出心得與台灣日後如欲進行選舉改革的建議。全文共分五章：首章緒論;第二章為德國與台灣選舉制度的基本定位;第三章為台灣與德國選舉制度下選民與議席的問題;第四章為台灣與德國混合 制下投票行為與政治效應;第五章則為結論。 Taiwan made a great stride in the reform of election rules in January 1st, 2008.The seventh-term legislator election would replace the current Multi-Member-District,Single Non-Transferable Vote with the mixed system, ie, the single-member district simple plurality system as well as proportional representation. This exactly fulfills the single-member district and two-vote system for these years. However, this great transforming raises the controversial issue regarding the reality in Taiwan. The implementation of this newly election rules did have some imperfections. First of all, the congressman’s authority degenerate into assemblyman . Second, the unequal populations, and the different level of the administrative division in every district. Third, this also raises the questions about the compromise tendency for voting area, and the proportional deviation to the seats and votes.
German is the founding country of the single-member district simple plurality system as well as proportional representation. But her additional member system exists the difference of fundamental system to mixed system in Taiwan. As a result, I will compare Germany with Taiwan as a criterion.
The methodology of this thesis mainly adopts the Comparative Analysis and reinforces the Historical Analysis. This research first aims to introduce the evolution of election system in these two countries. It further analyzes the three imperfections of the new system in Taiwan mentioned above in comparison with Germany. This thesis also reflects the voting conditions and the political effect of the party politics under this election system reacted by the two different countries citizens. It concludes my evaluations and suggestions for reforming the elections in Taiwan in the future.
This thesis includes five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction for the overview concept. The second is the fundamental definition of the election system for Germany and Taiwan. The third is the issues for citizens and number of seating in these two countries. The forth is the comparison of voting conditions and political effects for the mixed system in Taiwan and Germany. The last chapter is the evaluation.