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    題名: 德國與波蘭邊境問題研究
    其他題名: The German-Polish border dispute
    作者: 張哲維;Chang, Che-wei
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    鄭欽模;Cheng, Chin-mo
    關鍵詞: 奧得-奈瑟邊界線;德波邊界條約;跨邊界合作;Oder-Neisse line;German-Polish Border Treaties;cross-border cooperation
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:04:08 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 第二次世界大戰後,德國和波蘭之間一直存在三個核心問題:一是兩國邊界的確定,二是波蘭境內德國人的權益,三是戰後所衍生的索賠爭議。波蘭與德國的邊界問題,直接貫穿第二次世界大戰始末。直至今日,兩國間的衝突矛盾與互助合作,依舊受到邊境問題影響。二次世界大戰後德國與波蘭的邊境劃分,突顯當時戰勝國的權力結構,清楚反映出蘇聯、美國和英國各自在政治、經濟利益考量上所面臨的衝突與矛盾。本論文以第二次世界大戰正式落幕前,美英蘇三強所簽訂的「波茨坦協定」(Potsdam Agreement;Potsdamer Abkommen )為起點,研究德國波蘭兩國因邊界劃定所引發的問題。並論及歐盟東擴後,兩國邊境問題在歐盟整合架構下的發展及其對雙方關係所帶來的影響:

    第二次世界大戰後,美英蘇三國領袖就重新恢復歐洲安全秩序與德國問題等事項交換意見,最後決定將德波邊界最終決定權交予「外交部長會議」研議。雖然在德波邊界劃定上並未產生最終結論,但在史達林和邱吉爾兩人主導下,已經形成初步共識。重劃德波邊境的法源依據,除了由美英蘇三強簽訂的「波茨坦協定」,還有波蘭於1950年、1971年分別與當時的東德與西德政權共同簽署的「茨格賽勒克協定」 (The Treaty of Zgorzelec;Görlitzer Vertrag) 和「華沙條約」(The Warsaw Treaty;Warschauer Vertrag)。締約雙方同意以奧得河(Oder River;die Oder)與奈瑟河(Neisse River;die Neisse)為界。1975年的「赫爾辛基最後文件」(The Helsinki Final Act;Schlussakte von Helsinki),再次確認此疆界的不可侵犯性。德波雙方在兩德統一後,於1990年11月14日簽署「德國波蘭邊界條約」(German-Polish Border Treaty;Deutsch-Polnischer Grenzvertrag),再度確認「茨格賽勒克協定」與「華沙條約」所劃定的邊界線。兩國境內少數族裔問題,則在1991年6月17日所簽署的「德波敦睦友好暨合作條約」(Friendship and Cooperation Treaty;Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Republik Polen über gute Nachbarschaft und freundschaftliche Zusammenarbeit)中,首次獲得德波雙方政府以條約形式論及,並以明文保障兩國境內少數族裔的權益。

    在為二次世界大戰付出慘痛的代價後,歐洲國家完成高度的經濟整合,並藉由橫跨多個領域的共同合作政策,促成歐洲各民族的和解。德國與波蘭間因為邊境問題所衍生的人權爭議與賠償問題,自第二次世界大戰後,便成為雙邊會談的焦點議題。在兩德統一與歐盟東擴等歷史性時刻,德波邊界問題也成為歐洲地區是否能夠維持和平穩定的重要關鍵,兩國極力在「歐洲共同發展」與「民族情感」之間取得平衡。「德國被驅逐者聯盟」(Federation of Expellees)與「普魯士人索賠協會」(Prussian Claims Society)的成立與運作,讓德波邊界問題再次造成兩國政壇震盪。儘管兩國人民心中依舊存有對彼此的刻板印象,國內亦不乏操弄民族主義的傳媒與政黨,但雙方政府在邊境上的合作,自九零年代開始卻有愈見緊密的趨勢。目前德國與波蘭同樣都是歐盟成員國,雙方也遵循「共同體倡議」與「申根公約」的規定,展開多樣且廣泛的跨邊境合作。德國與波蘭的和解過程,不僅可視為歐洲高度整合的成果之一,亦可做為跨邊界合作的重要典範。
    The Oder-Neisse line marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland during 1950 to 1990. Since 1990, it has marked the boundary that separates reunited Germany and Poland. The line is formed primarily by the rivers Oder and Neisse, but it deviates west of the Oder to include the seaport cities of Stettin and Swinemünde within Poland. Before World War II, Poland''s western border with Germany had been fixed under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. It partially ran along the historic borders of Great Poland, but with certain adjustments that were intended to reasonably reflect the ethnic compositions of small areas beyond the traditional provincial borders. At the end of World War II in 1945, under the territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union, the border was moved westward deep into territory formerly part of the German state and populated by a German population, to a line which placed almost all of Silesia, more than half of Pomerania, the eastern portion Brandenburg and a small area of Saxony within Poland. The territorial changes were followed by large-scale population transfers and ethnic cleansing, including the expulsion and massacre of nearly all the Germans from the territory annexed by Poland and the Soviets and the return to Poland of the Polish displaced persons then inside Allied occupied Germany.

    The governments of the German Democratic Republic and Poland signed the Treaty of Zgorzelec in 1950, recognizing the Oder-Neisse line, officially designated the "Border of Peace and Friendship". In another treaty signed in 1989 between Poland and East Germany, the sea border was set and a dispute from 1985 came to an end. In 1970 West Germany signed treaties with the Soviet Union (Treaty of Moscow) and Poland (Treaty of Warsaw) recognizing the Oder-Neisse line as the border of Poland. In November 1990, after German reunification, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Poland signed a treaty confirming the border between them, as requested by the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany. The 1990 German-Polish Border Treaty finalizing the Oder-Neisse line as the Polish-German border came into force on January 16, 1992 together with a second one, a Treaty of Good Neighbourship, signed in June 1991, in which the two countries among other things recognized basic political and cultural rights for both German and Polish minorities living on either side of the border. A total of 29 states, including 25 European Union states and four non-EU members, are bound to the full set of rules in the Schengen Agreement (as amended), and 24 have fully implemented its provisions so far. Border posts and checks have been removed between the states which form the Schengen area. Many neighboring Schengen states have introduced further bilateral measures for police cooperation in border regions.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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