|摘要: ||極權政治是人類文明發展過程中的一種特殊現象，鄂蘭(Hannah Arendt)稱之為20世紀的新興現象，而極權政體興起的原因也一直是許多研究者感到好奇的領域。筆者在文中嘗試從伊士頓(David Easton)政治系統論的角度來觀察，藉由系統論中系統持續與系統調節的概念，分析德國在1924至1936年間其內外環境的變遷、政治當局的政策輸出以及政治成員對政策輸出的反應三者間的互動，來解釋極權政體的興起。|
The fields of totalitarian regime’s rising have been the subjects that many scholars interested in. Hannah Arendt called totalitarian politics was a newly risen phenomenon in the 20th century because of its specialty in human civilization. In this thesis, the author attempt to observe that from the perspective of David Easton’s political system, by the concept of “System Persisting” and “System Self-Transformation”, also by analyzing the interaction between environment change, policy output from political authority, and reaction of political members in Germany from 1924 to 1936, to explain the rising of totalitarian regime.
The thesis mainly contains three stages of Germany between 1924 and 1936, including (1) The period of stability(1924-1929)：In this stage, the political system of Germany was remained stable under government of Weimar Republic. The people’s livelihood needs were fulfilled; also the support from the people could keep the regime operating well. (2) The period of transformation(1929-1933)：Due to the broke out of Great Depression, the political system of Germany went through a very difficult time during this period, which result in that the system was prompted to proceed a process of “Self-Transformation”. However, under the circumstance that Weimar Republic kept failing to deal with increasing pressure from environment, the people felt less and less supportive toward the government, also more and more unfulfilled with their livelihood needs. In order to survive under such a rugged time, the process of “Self-Transformation” was forced to become more violent, which eventually would bring about a new authority and regime—the totalitarian regime. (3) The period of restability(1933-1936)：Owing to the coercion policy output of newly risen totalitarian regime, the political system of Germany was restored to stable situation again, whether in politics or in economy. Also by achieving full employment in 1936, Germany officially ended the chaos which had been lasting since the breakout of Great Depression.