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    题名: 德國極權政體的興起(1924~1936年)─從政治系統論分析
    其它题名: The analysis of totalitarian regime's rising in Germany(1924~1936)--from the perspective of David Easton's political system theory.
    作者: 杜建宏;Tu, Chien-hung
    贡献者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    郭秋慶;Kuo, Chiu-ching
    关键词: 極權政體;政治系統;威瑪共和;希特勒政權;Totalitarian Regime;Political System;Weimar Republic;Hitler Regime
    日期: 2008
    上传时间: 2010-01-11 00:04:05 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 極權政治是人類文明發展過程中的一種特殊現象,鄂蘭(Hannah Arendt)稱之為20世紀的新興現象,而極權政體興起的原因也一直是許多研究者感到好奇的領域。筆者在文中嘗試從伊士頓(David Easton)政治系統論的角度來觀察,藉由系統論中系統持續與系統調節的概念,分析德國在1924至1936年間其內外環境的變遷、政治當局的政策輸出以及政治成員對政策輸出的反應三者間的互動,來解釋極權政體的興起。

    文章分為三個階段,首先描述1924至1929年間,在威瑪共和體制下的德國穩定時期,這段時間人民的需求充分被滿足,同時對於政府的支持也能繼續推動政府運作。第二階段則是1929年至1933年的系統調節期,由於世界經濟大恐慌的爆發,使得德國政治系統的環境壓力遽增,在這樣的情形下,政治系統為求延續生存,逐漸進行自我調節以適應內外的環境壓力。然而在共和政府為應付環境壓力而所輸出的政策皆失敗的情況下,人民感到不被滿足的程度越來越嚴重,對於政府的支持也越來越低,這促使自我調節必須以更激烈的方式來呈現,一個新的政治當局與典則—極權政體於是誕生。第三階段則是1933至1936年間的系統重新穩定期,藉由新興極權政體的高壓政策輸出,使得德國在政治與經濟上重新恢復穩定,並在1936年達到充分就業,正式結束了德國自1929年來因經濟大恐慌所引起的政、經混亂。
    The fields of totalitarian regime’s rising have been the subjects that many scholars interested in. Hannah Arendt called totalitarian politics was a newly risen phenomenon in the 20th century because of its specialty in human civilization. In this thesis, the author attempt to observe that from the perspective of David Easton’s political system, by the concept of “System Persisting” and “System Self-Transformation”, also by analyzing the interaction between environment change, policy output from political authority, and reaction of political members in Germany from 1924 to 1936, to explain the rising of totalitarian regime.

    The thesis mainly contains three stages of Germany between 1924 and 1936, including (1) The period of stability(1924-1929):In this stage, the political system of Germany was remained stable under government of Weimar Republic. The people’s livelihood needs were fulfilled; also the support from the people could keep the regime operating well. (2) The period of transformation(1929-1933):Due to the broke out of Great Depression, the political system of Germany went through a very difficult time during this period, which result in that the system was prompted to proceed a process of “Self-Transformation”. However, under the circumstance that Weimar Republic kept failing to deal with increasing pressure from environment, the people felt less and less supportive toward the government, also more and more unfulfilled with their livelihood needs. In order to survive under such a rugged time, the process of “Self-Transformation” was forced to become more violent, which eventually would bring about a new authority and regime—the totalitarian regime. (3) The period of restability(1933-1936):Owing to the coercion policy output of newly risen totalitarian regime, the political system of Germany was restored to stable situation again, whether in politics or in economy. Also by achieving full employment in 1936, Germany officially ended the chaos which had been lasting since the breakout of Great Depression.
    显示于类别:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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