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    Title: 西班牙政經轉型對國家競爭力之影響
    Other Titles: The impact of political and economic transformation on national competitiveness in Spain
    Authors: 田欣怡;Tien, Hsin-i
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    陳雅鴻;Chen, Ya-hong
    Keywords: 歐洲聯盟;西班牙;國家競爭力;經濟整合;European Union;Spain;National Competitiveness;Economic Integration
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 00:03:36 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 二次戰後各國紛紛加入國際性組織,國與國之間形成合作且競爭的形式,在當時國際環境之下,西班牙因為二次大戰協助軸心國以及隸屬非民主政體而遭到國際組織的排斥,就連歐洲初期的統合也無法加入。佛朗哥逝世後,由國王卡洛斯從上到下推動政治改革,展開國家新局。西班牙亦憑藉自身努力,逐漸開放國內市場並且積極加入歐體,配合歐體共同政策之執行,國家實力明顯提升。

    歐盟是西班牙過去40年經濟改革的動力,亦為推動經濟現代化及全球化的關鍵。西班牙加入歐體的過程可分為幾個階段:首先,貿易開放,1986年以前西班牙先開放出口貿易,進而開放進口貿易。第二,加入歐體後之改革措施,如國營企業私有化、產業重整、解除貿易限制等,以增加競爭力。最後,完全經濟整合,各會員國喪失匯率及貨幣的主導權,經過一段時間的經濟趨合以達成歐洲國家間的實質經濟整合。本文研究主題即試圖印證西班牙政經轉型之成功對「國家競爭力」之提升有正向的助益。

    本研究發現,西班牙在孤立的情勢下,從專制獨裁政體和平地轉型為民主國家,並且透過與歐體長期談判、協調最終成為會員國,藉此提升經濟實力,使其國內的政經情況有顯著的進步。近年來西國失業率降低,國民所得增加,經濟成長率向上攀升,一掃過去陰霾。
    After World War II, various countries acceded to the international organizations, they cooperated and competed between each others. At that time, Spain was isolated by the international organizations because she supported the Axis privately at World War II and she was not a democratic regime. For that reason, she couldn’t join the first step of european integration. After Francisco Franco passed away, King Juan Carlos promoted the political reform, and brought Spain to a bright future. Of course, Spain used of her own efforts to open up domestic market gradually and to accede to European Community. She followed and enforced the common policies of European Community, now the national competitiveness of Spain has obviously improved.

    Europe has been the driving force of economic policy in Spain over the past four decades and the key factor behind the modernization and globalization of the Spanish economy. The process of accession to the EC was carried out in several stages. First, trade openness, exports were liberalized before 1986, while imports were liberalized from that date onward. Secondly, adjustable measures after accession, such as privatization of public enterprise, industrial restructuring, trade deregulation etc, to increase competitiveness. Finally, complete economic integration, member states must gave up the exchange rate and monetary sovereignty, they carried out a process of nominal convergence and fiscal consolidation for a long time to achieve real convergence between european countries. Therefore, this thesis tries to analyze and prove the positive influence of political and economic transformation on national competitiveness in Spain.

    According to the study, we can realize that under the international isolated situation, Spain negotiated for a long time with European Community, finally became member state of EC. Hence, Spain has been transformed peacefully from autocratic and dictatorship government to a democratic regime. Being member state of EC helped Spain to strength economic level and to improve internal political and economic situation. Moreover, the unemployment rate performed better in recent years, national income also increased and economic growth rate soared upward, Spain become more stable in political situation and economic performance .
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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