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    题名: 德國幼兒早期照顧暨教育政策與改革-以福利國家觀點探討
    其它题名: Early childhood care and education policy and reform in the federal republic of Germany - in the view of welfare state
    作者: 孫名慧;Sun, Ming-hui
    贡献者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    趙美盈;Chao, Mei-ying
    关键词: 幼兒照顧;學前教育;育兒津貼;家庭式照顧;日間照顧機構;Early childhood care;Early childhood education;Family/Children allowance;Family day care;day care centers
    日期: 2008
    上传时间: 2010-01-11 00:03:31 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 女性自主意識逐漸抬頭,教育水準提升,越來越多的女性進人職場,私領域的兒童照顧與教育問題無法再由父母單獨承擔,必須仰賴國家及市場所提供的相關政策與福利,才能平衡工作與家庭生活。因此,許多國家意識到健全的幼兒早期照顧暨教育政策之重要性,包括德國。然而,德國的保守組合主義(conservative corporatist)福利國家模式,卻限縮政策的發展。

    保守組合主義國家之於家庭與幼兒之福利,由於去家庭化程度有限,國家雖提供的優厚的福利,但是以職業類別為區隔。在傳統家庭主義與天主教的影響下,相當重視傳統家庭所扮演的角色,認為男性為外出工作養家者,婦女則應留在家中,從事社會再生產之工作;國家認為家庭是幼兒社會服務之提供者,相關的福利措施都以維持家庭功能為主。政府之幼兒照顧暨教育政策,傾向給予家庭相關育兒津貼,對於幼兒的機構式照顧卻十分缺乏,特別是3歲以下幼兒的機構式照顧。

    近年來,德國面臨社會結構與人口的轉變,加上女性勞動參與持續上升,生育率不斷下降,2005年歐盟平均為1.52%,德國方面則是1.34%,低於歐盟整體的平均數;以排名來看,位居歐盟國家之末幾位。又受到來自歐盟與經濟合作暨發展會議的外來影響,德國不得不進行改革。主要的改革方案,包括對育兒津貼之調整,像是父母職金;對於3歲以下幼兒的照顧,也提出日間照顧機構擴張法案,擴大對3歲以下幼兒的照顧暨教育,提升幼兒照顧暨教育之素質也是改革的要點之一。

    本研究主要探討德國自統一後,基於德國之福利國家模式,發展而成的幼兒照顧暨教育政策,了解國家於幼兒照顧暨教育政策領域之角色;進一步探討德國在面臨國內外挑戰與影響的情況下,所作出之改革方案。整體而論,出生率的降底對於國家而言,在各方面都會產生負面的影響;因此,即使德國也面臨嚴重的福利國家危機,逐漸降低社會福利的給予,但對於育兒的相關津貼不但沒漸少,反而呈現上升之趨勢,對於幼兒的機構式照顧也日益重視,而機構式照顧,又為幼兒學前教育的重要場所。可以看出德國現今的幼兒早期照顧暨教育政策,雖然仍趨於保守,但不再僅著重維持家庭功能;家庭外的照顧暨教育在女性走進職場後,逐漸取代家庭,成為幼兒照顧暨教育的重要場所。
    Today, more and more women joint labour market. Family can not bear the responsibility of early childhood care and education by their own. It is no longer the private affairs, instead of family, government play an important role of this area. Government sould help parents a better work-family balance, especially the early childhood care and education policy. Nevertheless, because of the conservative corporatist welfare model, the early childhood care and education policy in german is limited.

    The level of defamilialization of conservative corporatist welfare state is low. German is widely recognized as a strong male breadwinner/female carer model, government offers various family and children allowances, in order to preserve functions of family. However, the early childhood care and education policy in german is lack of child day care centers, especially the children under the age of three.

    Recently, German faces social and demographical change. Not only the labour force participation rates of women in German continue to increase, the birth rates is even lower than EU’s average. Besides, German is one of the member of EU and OECD, and both two organizations propose some targets or advises for early childhood care and education. Because of those inside and outside causes, German has to reform this policy area. The main points of German’s reform include the reconciliation of children and family allowances, for example Elterngeld. On the other hand, the federal government establishes Day-Care Expansion Act(TAG) to support expansion of child day-care institutions and development of the quality of child day-care in institutions for all children under the age of three.

    The conclusion of the study is, although German’s early childhood care and education policy still keep the conservative corporatist character, it regards family as the most important carer for children. However, due to the inside and outside influences and challenges, German begin to take account of the care outside family. Day care institutions replace family’s care and education gradually.
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