|摘要: ||十六、十七世紀為西班牙稱霸歐洲的時代，但隨著時代演進，西班牙的國際地位大不如前。佛朗哥將軍(General Franco)時代，西班牙受到國際社會的孤立。又2001年九一一事件發生後，人民黨政府(Popular Party, PP)公開聲明支持美國的反恐行動，表現了不同於歐盟軸心國的立場。其後，人民黨政府堅決反對歐盟憲法草案(Draft Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe)中的表決機制。因此，本文將研析自西班牙民主化以來首次右派意識型態的政府─人民黨(Popular Party, PP)的歐盟政策，並分析其理念之延續性、政策之適當性，以及目標之實現性。|
本文依伊斯頓(David Easton)的「系統理論」(System Theory)做為研究架構，由內在與外在環境因素，輸入政府決策機制進行轉換，產出人民黨政府之歐盟政策，並表現在歐盟政治體制、歐盟東擴政策、歐盟地中海政策與歐洲安全暨防禦政策上。同時，其歐盟政策亦反饋而影響西班牙、歐盟與大西洋兩岸關係。
西班牙在歐盟政治體制中，較不重視歐盟正統性，而是強調「國家」的權力，表示它對歐盟制度為無政府狀態(Anarchy)與國家中心(State-centric)的認知。西班牙爲追求做為歐盟大國與務實主義，透過新聯盟關係與推動歐盟地中海政策，以維持在歐盟的權力平衡(Balance of Power)。同時，它基於權力即軍事力量的現實主義觀點，推動共同外交暨安全政策的發展，且追隨布希(George W. Bush)政府的外交政策，尤其是參與美國軍事反恐行動。
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Spain was a powerful country; however, as centuries passed, Spain’s influence declined considerably. In the twentieth century, during the era of General Franco, Spain was even isolated by the international community. In 2001, in the wake of the September 11 attacks in the United States, Spain supported military action against terrorism, taking a position at odds with the core member states of the European Union (E.U.) Later, in 2003, Spain opposed the decision-making provisions contained in the draft E.U. Constitution. This thesis will analyze the E.U. policy of the first democratic right-wing administration, the Popular Party, and evaluate the continuity of its concepts, the adequacy of its policies, and the achievement of its goals.
This thesis is based on “System Theory,” with domestic and international factors seen as inputs to the decision-making system in Spain, and the concepts of the Aznar government as the output. These concepts are manifested in E.U. political institutions, enlargement policy, European Mediterranean Policy, and European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP), and also feedback to influence Spain, the E.U., and Atlantic relations.
The main research method employed is “Neorealism Theory,” also a key principle of the Aznar administration, and this thesis identifies five concepts of the Popular Party’s E.U. policy: Being a powerful member state within the E.U., Governmentalism, Pragmatism, Atlantism and New Alliance, and Gradualism.
The Aznar administration did not embrace the orthodoxy of the E.U.; instead it emphasized the power of the state, thereby demonstrating the “anarchy” of the E.U. and the “state-centric approach.” As a powerful E.U. member state dedicated to pragmatism, Spain hopes to maintain the “balance of power” through enhancing its relationship with the United States and the United Kingdom, and also to forward the development of E.U. Mediterranean policy. Meanwhile, based on its neo-realist view of “power,” the Aznar government facilitated the implementation of the CFSP, and followed the Bush administration’s views on foreign policy, especially with respect to anti-terrorism.