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    Title: 歐洲聯盟整合下的歐洲認同
    Other Titles: National identity and European identity
    Authors: 蔡穎芃;Tsai, Ying-perng
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    卓忠宏;Cho, Chung-hung
    Keywords: 民族國家;國家認同;歐羅巴;歐洲意識;歐洲認同;歐洲憲法草案;歐洲憲法條約;nation-state;national identity;Europa;European integration;European identity;European constitution;A three-pillared institutionalism;Constitutional Treaty
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 00:03:23 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 民族/國家意識與歐洲認同兩者為近代歐洲發展中所產生的兩大重要政治文化,在歐洲整合的過程中皆為關鍵性的基本元素。因此,如何在不妨礙各國主權下異中求同,以獲得全體最大利益、用寬容的態度由「民族認同」擴大至「歐洲認同」將對歐洲下一階段整合的成功與否具有決定性的地位。
    歐洲為傳統民族國家的發源地,不過,歐洲大陸長久以來也同時被視為同一個社群(community)。因此,本文從歐洲兩大文化認同「民族意識」與「歐洲意識」作為分析的主軸。民族主義成為凝聚國家內部的力量,不過,另一方面,由於歐洲地區在地理上的特殊性,所謂的歐洲觀念源自於彼此長久以來共享的歷史及文化遺產。從文化的角度來看,歐洲觀念其實早以深埋人心,但是經過文藝復興、啟蒙運動、歐洲所孕育的工業化、現代化與傳播的催化,逐漸形成歐洲整體共同意識的過程,到了1950年代面對國際環境的巨變及歐洲文明長久以來崇高的地位挑戰,才在政治家及行動家的操作下,將之具體化,進行歐洲統合。不過在傳統國家主權下的歐洲架構仍然無法順利地將國家認同轉移至歐洲認同。學者史考特和拉芬從規律、規範和認知三個支柱(a three-pillared institutionalism)理論架構中得知雖然憲法草案中強化了歐盟的法律體系、明示了歐洲共同價值及塑造各種統合符號,但是卻無法強化歐盟各國國家人民的集體認同感,抑或弱化了歐洲統合,使得現階段的歐洲邁向「不等速的歐洲」並以「政府間合作」主導歐洲聯盟的統合速度及程度。『歐洲憲法條約』公投的失敗,則是最典型的例子。這次的失敗可以視為歐洲人民對於歐洲聯盟統合速度過快、擔心國家主權的逐漸消失而在態度上有所保留,不過對於歐洲統合仍然抱持著相當高度的肯定。
    本研究之目的除了從歐洲政治與文化發展來說明分析「民族認同」(或國家認同)及「歐洲認同」在目前歐盟內部之歐洲認同議題上所面對的困境與挑戰外,並針對歐洲憲法條約相關內容,檢視歐洲整合下國家主權之消長與人民對歐盟的向心力與凝聚力,在身為原始會員國的法國與荷蘭否決歐洲憲法後是否會影響歐洲下一階段的統合目標。本文各章節如下:
    第一章 緒論
    第二章 民族國家與國家認同的形成與發展
    第三章 歐洲認同的發展與形成
    第四章 歐洲憲法草案對歐洲認同的影響
    第五章 結語
    National consciousness and the concept of Europe emerged as two principal factors in European political culture and they also play crucial roles to the future European Integration. Europe is regard as the cradle of the nation-state for a long time, on the other hand, European continent is considered as a special community as well. Nations-state relies on national identity while European integration is dependent on European self-identity. The tension between these two opposite identities influences the speed and the degree of the process of European integration.

    By the major approach of historical and secondary literature analysis, this author attempts to focus on the formation of the National and the European identities from political and cultural development of Europe and also tries to explain the difficulty and challenge of identity issues nowadays in European Union. Moreover, based on the three-pillared institutionalism by Scott and the developed by Laffan, though the Draft Constitutional Treaty may consolidate the European Union’s legal system, create important symbols for Europe and present equally European values, the constitution didn’t cohere successfully all the European people. By the result of referendum in France and in Netherlands, two primary member states of European Union, to Constitutional Treaty, we conclude that European people are principally in favor of European integration. For the moment, they still put the national sovereignty and national interests on the first place.

    The thesis is divided into five chapters and the structure is as followed:

    Chapter 1 Introduction
    Chapter 2 Development of Nation-State and National Identity
    Chapter 3 Development of European Identity
    Chapter 4 The influence of The Draft of Constitutional Treaty to European Identity
    Chapter 5 Conclusion
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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