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    題名: 歐洲聯盟與反大規模毀滅性武器擴散 : 戰略、政策與貢獻
    其他題名: The European Union and WMD non-proliferation: strategy, policy and contribution
    作者: 李蘇薇;Lee, Su-wei
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    張福昌;Chang, Fu-chang
    關鍵詞: 大規模毀滅性武器;歐盟反大規模毀滅性武器擴散戰略;歐盟反擴散政策;WMD;EU Strategy against WMD Proliferation;EU Non-Proliferation Policy
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:03:18 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 大規模毀滅性武器(WMD)具有強大的殺傷力,故WMD的擴散是國際安全的一大威脅。911事件後,國際對WMD的擴散更加關注。歐盟身為全球行為者,有義務維持世界的和平與穩定,因此亦重視WMD擴散的議題。2003年歐盟發佈反WMD擴散戰略,把WMD問題列為共同外交與安全政策中優先處理的議題,並具體闡述對抗WMD擴散的政治目標與執行工具。本論文將以制度主義的視野,從以下四個方面來檢視歐盟反WMD擴散的戰略、政策與貢獻:
    首先,國際建制是解決擴散危機的基本工具,國家行為受到國際建制的規範。透過與其他國際組織的合作,有利於國際建制的維護與強化;其次,國際管理的制度安排是實踐國際建制的工具,其中出口管制是預防擴散的關鍵之一,歐盟相當尊重國際管理制度的規範。然而,歐盟特殊的結構,使歐盟在實踐國際管理制度時的權威性減弱,尤其是在軍民兩用與武器出口方面;另外,合作是制度存在的要素,行為者透過合作加強國際制度的發展。而且,欲有效解決擴散問題,與第三國合作是有必要的。美國身為國際制度的主導者,故與美國合作特別重要。
    最後,除了加強國際制度與國際組織之外,歐盟也注重實際擴散危機的處理。綜合各種因素之考量,俄羅斯與伊朗的擴散危機為歐盟優先處理的對象之二。後冷戰時期,俄羅斯無法妥善地管理龐大的WMD庫存,導致國際社會對這些武器的安全產生擔憂。近年來,伊朗核武問題使國際擴散管理機制面臨考驗。伊朗隱瞞鈾濃縮活動18年之久,以及伊朗總統阿赫馬迪內賈德強硬的態度,很難不把伊朗與核武聯想在一起。本論文欲藉由這兩個案例,分析歐盟在國際擴散議題中所扮演的角色與功能。
    本論文發現,歐盟在國際WMD擴散管理中,相當重視國際制度的維持,鼓吹多邊主義,以強化國際安全發展。歐盟扮演著輔助的角色,主要是對相關國家與國際組織提供經濟與技術的支持。然而,歐盟各會員國認知的差異,使歐盟在反擴散行動受到限制,尤其是核武問題。未來,歐盟若能在經濟與貿易的優勢下,再輔以統合的WMD政策,則可對WMD擴散議題發揮更大的影響力。
    Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) could cause huge devastation and bring death to hundreds of thousands of people, and is therefore one of the most dangerous threats to international security. In the post 9/11 era the international community is now even more focused than before on the issue of WMD proliferation. In 2003, the EU released a strategy on how to deal with proliferation, in which the EU describes its political objectives and instruments to manage this serious crisis. This thesis discusses the EU’s strategy through the theory of Institutionalism.
    The international regime establishes the non-proliferation norm through means such as export control, which is one of the EU’s key ways to prevent proliferation. However, the EU as a special political entity weakens its authority in fields of export control of dual-use items and armament. As it is important for the existence of the non-proliferation regime in terms of collective efforts, the EU has to cooperate with third countries to stop the proliferation of WMD. Due to the leadership role of the USA in the international regime, close cooperation with the USA makes the EU’s action against proliferation of WMD more effective.
    Russia and Iran are two of the EU’s most urgent issues. Russia lacks the ability to manage its current WMD arsenal due to financial and social problems. With an uranium enrichment programme that has been in existence for over 20 years, the Iran nuclear crisis also challenges the international non-proliferation regime. Considering these two cases, this thesis helps to understand the EU’s role and function in the international non-proliferation activities.
    The EU holds that multilateralism is the best way of strengthening international security. In helping either individual countries or the international non-proliferation organization financially and technologically, the EU plays an important supporting role. However, the differing opinion among the EU’s member states on WMD, especially on nuclear proliferation, limits its ability to control proliferation. If the EU wants to be more influential and effective dealing with the WMD proliferation, it needs a more integrated WMD non-proliferation policy.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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