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    Title: 歐盟國家單親家庭政策之比較: 以瑞典、法國、英國及西班牙為例
    Other Titles: The comparative analysis of lone-parent family policies in EU : the cases of Sweden, France, UK and Spain
    Authors: 蔡宜君;Tsai, Yi-chung
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    趙美盈;Chao, Mei-ying
    Keywords: 單親家庭;歐盟;家庭津貼;稅額扣抵;幼托服務;親職假;Lone-parent Family;European Union;Family/Child Allowance;Tax Credit;Childcare;Parental Leave
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 00:03:02 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   單親家庭因其本身的特性使其較易在社會上及經濟上面臨困境,而隨著單親家庭迅速增加的現象,國家政府到底能為單親家庭做些什麼,使其能儘快復原成為「健全的家庭」,是值得令人重視的議題。因此歐盟各國紛紛制訂各種新的社會政策來因應單親家庭增加的趨勢。雖然離婚仍是造成歐盟國家單親家庭成長最主要的因素,但是未婚生子已是名列其二的因素,而實際上,離婚及未婚生子在歐洲已被重新定義為社會的風險而非個人的風險,因其會造成單親家長與其兒童遭遇經濟不安全的風險,故需透過政府制訂的公共所得維持系統來提供其保護。

      本研究選擇歐盟中瑞典、法國、英國及西班牙四個國家做個案之比較分析,並採用亞斯平.安得森(Esping-Andersen)傳統的三個福利國家體制(瑞典的社會民主式、法國的國家組合主義式及英國的自由主義式)之架構,另外再加上南歐福利國家體制,以此四種不同的福利國家體制來分析瑞典、法國、英國及西班牙這四國對於單親家庭在經濟支持政策及兒童照顧政策這二方面的需求,所提出的相關社會福利措施及改革來進行研究探討。希冀藉由比較分析瑞典、法國、英國及西班牙這四國在制定其單親家庭相關社會政策之相關經驗及評估其優劣得失,以期能對我國在制訂單親家庭相關支持政策提供具體的建議與參考。

      由本研究結果得知,瑞典、法國、英國及西班牙這四國皆有實施家庭津貼的制度,但是光提供家庭津貼給予有依賴子女的家庭仍然無法寬解照顧子女的負擔,像是瑞典及法國重視兒童的國家,都很重視公共幼托服務的普及化。由國家提供高品質的幼托服務及制訂的親職假等政策不僅對一般家庭有利,對單親家庭更加重要,因為這些政策能決定單親家長是否就業以及調和家庭與工作生活的平衡點。因此,我國在制訂單親家庭相關政策之規劃上,可朝向使單親家長工作與家庭平衡的政策努力,再加上慷慨適合的家庭津貼及兒童照顧之相關扣抵稅額的政策,將可減低單親家庭經濟不安全的風險。

      此外,福利國家體制的差異對其國家、市場和家庭所扮演的福利角色有相當大的影響,亦牽動著國家對家庭的照顧程度。而比較瑞典、法國、英國及西班牙這四國對單親家庭的相關福利政策發現,國家對家庭福利的重視程度愈高,單親家庭的受益程度相對的也愈大。
      Many of the socio-economic problems associated with lone-parent families are related to the loss of economic resources. The significance of lone-parent families as a family tape changes according to country but the pattern of growth is the same. Although divorce remains the single greatest factor in the rise of lone-parent families in EU (European Union), unwed motherhood is a growing secondary factor. Thus, the countries of EU have moved rapidly over the last decade to develop new social policies in response to the increase of lone-parent families. In effect, divorce is being redefined in Europe as a social rather than an individual risk, which has negative economic consequences for women and children and warrants protection through the public income-maintenance system.

      The aim of this thesis is to examine policies towards lone-parent families within an EU framework by choosing the cases of Sweden, France, UK and Spain. This thesis uses Esping-Andersen’s theory about the regimes of three welfare states (social democratic welfare state; state-corporatist welfare state; liberal welfare state) as well as Southern European welfare state regime to compare the policies regarding family/child allowance, tax credit, childcare and parental leave in Sweden, France, UK and Spain. The researcher hopes that the conclusion of this comparative study would provide the useful suggestions for Taiwan’s lawmakers by learning the experience of those four countries.

      According to the study, we figure out that the policies, such as setting up extensively public facilities of childcare service and the convenient parental leave, would permit the successful balance in parenting and work. Besides, the universal family allowance and general tax credit in helping single parent to take care children would also decrease the difficulties of lone-parent families.

      In addition, the difference of the welfare states regimes would affect the roles of the state, the market and the family playing in the field of welfare. Comparing the welfare policies of Sweden, France, UK and Spain concerning lone-parent families, we realize that the more attention the state pays to the welfare of the family, the more benefits the lone-parent families acquire.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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