Since 1960s, Spain has been suffering from threats and attacks of many types of terrorism which afflict the government and the public for a long time. Therefore, the Spanish government has launched a series of counter-terrorism polices, laws and measures. On September 11, 2001, the United States was attacked by terrorists. In the aftermath of the attack, many sovereigns, inclusive of Spain, and international organizations started to enhance the related policies, laws and regulations to fight against terrorism.
This thesis emphasizes the counter-terrorism policies that were amended and adopted by the Spanish government after the 9/11 attack. The “realism” is used as the research approach to evaluate and analyze. The structure is divided into three parts as follows: firstly, it looks back at history review of the terrorism’s development in Spain before the 9/11 attack. Secondly, it describes and analyses the counter-terrorism measures after the event of 9/11 and the Madrid bombings, including the reactions, objects, and other related legislations. In addition, it explores the internal and external factors which affect counter-terrorism policy of Spanish government. And it discusses Spanish international cooperation against terrorism. In the end, it estimates the effects of counter-terrorism policy and the developments in the future.
The research concludes that the Spanish government has to take national and international counter-terrorism measures to promote the effect of the policy. At national level, it should enhance the coordination of the counter-terrorism organizations and increase the budget, police, and intelligence to reduce the threat of national security. At international level, it ought to strengthen bilateral and multilateral cooperation to achieve remarkable success.