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    題名: 西班牙與智利政治民主化之比較研究
    其他題名: A comparative study of democratization in Spain and Chile
    作者: 鄭家裕;Cheng, Chia-yu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    陳雅鴻;Chen, Ya-hong
    關鍵詞: 西班牙;智利;佛朗哥;皮諾契;威權主義;極權主義;民主;民主化;芝加哥學派;Spain;Chile;Franco;Pinochet;Authoritarianism;Totalitarianism;Democracy;Democratization;Chicago Boys
    日期: 2005
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:02:54 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 西班牙與智利皆是第三波二十世紀末的民主化浪潮之國家。七0年代,西班牙由威權政體轉型為民主政體。八0年代,拉丁美洲各國風起雲湧的推動民主化,其中尤以智利在1973年爆發了軍事政變後,威權統治顯著。因此西班牙與智利的民主化過程頗受世人所關注。

    佛朗哥實施個人獨裁,統治西班牙近四十年。佛朗哥時代雖然政治不甚民主,但其政治安定、經濟繁榮等,為之後的西班牙民主化奠定了基礎。在這四十年中,不但所有的政治反對勢力皆受到壓制、行政權個人化,且政治問題之立法與司法判決亦受到其干預。直到佛朗哥逝世和卡洛斯國王上台後,才正式宣告威權統治的結束及新的時代的開始。

    皮諾契將智利帶入長達十六年的威權統治,建立了智利歷史上最獨裁且最長久的威權政體。為了解決經濟問題,皮諾契「芝加哥學派」主張之貨幣主義政策,徹底實施了一系列的自由市場經濟及貿易政策。在這十六年中,智利的反對社會團體遭受到嚴厲的鎮壓與迫害,大大地影響社會運動的進行。直到1989年,艾爾文贏得總統大選後,才得以順利的恢復智利的民主政治體制。

    世界上沒有一種制度是完美的,民主制度也不例外。然而到目前為止,卻沒有其他制度能像民主制度更適合於所有國家。因此,每個國家應該要實行符合其傳統、文化和習慣的民主制度。

    本論文主要是在研究西班牙與智利民主化之比較。了解相關的民主轉型理論,探討西班牙與智利如何推行民主化,最後,評估兩國之相同與相異之處。
    Spain and Chile participated in the third wave of democratization in the Twentieth Century. During the 1970s, Spain transformed from an authoritarian to a democratic regime, whereas in the 1980s, Latin American countries also transferred their governments to democratic ones under the tide of democratization. Among them, Chile’s struggle was most worth noting, as it became an authoritarian state for many years after a Coup d''etat in 1973 had broken out Therefore, these two countries were the focus of the world on their process of democratization.

    Franco had governed Spain in a dictatorship for nearly forty years. Despite the fact that Franco’s regime was not democratic, Spain’s politics had been stable during his reign, even experiencing an economic boom. Therefore, it would be fair to say that Franco had, in fact, laid the foundation of Spain’s future democratization. Nonetheless, under his dictatorship, not only political oppositions were repressed, but also the administration was autarchic and ofthen intervened the legislation and judicial judgment in the political problems. After Franco’s death, reintatement of King Juan Carlos was seen as the watershed that marked the end of authoritarian rule and the beginning of the new era.

    In the case of Chile, Pinochet had created and controled an authoritarian regime for sixteen years, which was the longest and most severe authoritarian rule in Chilean history. For the purpose of solving economic problems, Pinochet adopted the monetary policy advocated by “Chicago boys”, and implemented a series of free-market economics and liberal trading policies. During this period, the social oppositions suffered crucial repression from the military government, which eclipsed their vitality. In 1989, Chile returned to democratic regime led by Patricio Aylwin.

    Democracy, of course, is not a perfect political system. Yet, it has the best potential of becoming a perfect one, given the right circumstances. However, a political democratization does not come naturally or cheaply, which has to be pursued in earnest, and it has been the goal of many states since the 19th century. Despite difficulties, each country should implement a democratic system that is compatible to its own history, culture and customs.

    This thesis compared the democratization transformation between Spain and Chile, in order to understand relative theories of democratic transitions, and to seek answers how Spain and Chile transferred their governments to a democratic one. Finally, it evaluated these two countries by their similarities and differences.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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