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    Title: 從法國經驗看藝術節對發展地方文化產業之影響
    Other Titles: The influences of festival on development of local cultural industry - from France's experiences.
    Authors: 黃聿卉;Huang, Yu-hui
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    梁蓉;Liang, Jung
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 00:02:52 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 當代「文化產業」的論述相較於四○年代法蘭克福學派提出的「文化工業」理論,不論在概念、內容或範疇上,皆已產生很大的質變。今日的文化產業擺脫以往強調工業化複製大眾文化商品的過程,轉由以地方的關懷與自省為出發,並利用在地的文化特色發展出一種包含創作、生產與消費的產業體系。透過文化與經濟的結合,文化產業將可能對地方經濟、社會、美學、生活等各層面產生顯著的影響。而藝術節也正是目前各地積極推動城市文化復興計畫時,最常被運用,也是最受歡迎的模式之一。
    法國一向以龐大的文化資產傲視全球,當面臨文化全球化的壓力下,更透過「文化去中央化」政策以維護地方文化自由發展的空間。在藝術節領域中,法國更以數量龐大、歷史悠久與具備權威性的文化節慶而聞名。本文透過四個藝術節的交叉分析,提出法國藝術節在操作過程中,皆以節目主題明確、擁有常設營運單位及公部門補助卻不介入的角色定位而得以成功。此外,儘管如里昂或亞維儂藝術節這類高國際知名度的節慶,放眼國際藝壇時,卻也從未放棄與在地文化的鏈結,因此,藝術節不論其最終目的為何,以在地精神為出發,依「城市-國家-國際」的方向循序漸進,仍是不變的主要關鍵。
    透過案例的探討,成功的藝術節不但擁有傳遞文化的作用,更能對文化產業鏈上游的生產、下游的消費層級產生顯著的影響,此外,藝術節對於活化城市古蹟、提振觀光事業與凝聚居民共識等方面也皆具正面效益。最後,筆者觀察法國藝術節最為特殊之處則是在於培養專業藝文人才與提供創作機會所作的努力。因此,儘管藝術節屬於短期性的文化活動,但透過有規劃的長期經營與跨領域的合作計畫,對於在地都市發展文化產業之際,仍可形成長期永續的文化效應。
    The “ cultural industry” of the present age has had enormous qualitative changes from the criticism that was mentioned by Frankfurt School in 1940s. The cultural industry used to focus on the industrial process of producing the mass cultural merchandise, but now it’s a new industrial system which full of environmental and local cultural consideration. The new cultural industry may have lots of effects on economy, society, esthetics, and our daily life. When each city devote in making their cultural planning, organizing art festivals is the most common way.

    By analyzing the four examples of France, the successful festivals always own a clear theme, a permanent organization and the proper helps of the government. Besides, they all have a strong linkage with the local spirit and though. Furthermore, these festivals aren’t just the area to delivering and consuming the culture; they also influence the different sector of the cultural industry domain, such as historic monuments, cultural tourism, and residents’ condensability. Finally, with long-terms operation and cross-domain cooperation, festivals still can have huge and permanent effects in developing local cultural industry.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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