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    题名: 歐洲理念的發展與形成(1914到1945為限)
    其它题名: The development and formation of the idea of Europe (1914-1945)
    作者: 吳長信;Wu, Chang-hsin
    贡献者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    游淙祺
    关键词: 歐洲理念;文化哲學;民族主義;歐洲整合;世界大戰;諾曼;馬薩里克;卡雷爾基;白里安;納粹;舍勒;盧卡奇;斯賓格勒;恰佩克;羅森貝格;加塞特;Friedrich Naumann;T. G. Masaryk;Coudenhove-Kalergi;Aristide Briand;Max Scheler;Oswald Spengler;Karel Capek;Alfred Rosenberg;Jose Ortega y Gasset;Nationalism;Nazi;World War
    日期: 2006
    上传时间: 2010-01-11 00:02:38 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 歐洲統合運動至今已有超過半個世紀的歷史,這一路走來,歐洲在許多方面都已經達到過去人類所未曾達到的境界。就政治與經濟的面向而言,無論是廣度還是深度,是一直朝著單一和統一的方向走,而且是愈走愈穩,愈走愈快。
    由於兩次世界大戰的發生,戰爭的殘酷、家園的毀壞、親人的失散,以及誨暗的未來,都使得當時的歐洲人,不得不重新思索他們未來的道路。因此後來舒曼宣言的出現、煤鋼共同體的成立,一直到後來的歐洲聯盟,這些都證明了兩次大戰對歐洲人的重大打擊與深遠影響。然而在舒曼宣言出現前的歐洲,當時的歐洲人又是怎麼想的?又是如何看待這整個事件的?本論文的重點是,在我們熟知的歐盟進化過程中,我們常將歐盟建立之前的歷史忽略了。舒曼宣言並不是無中生有的,在它之前,歐洲必然已經過一段的思考與蘊釀;而煤鋼共同體也絕不是第一個構思出來的方法,在它之前,歐洲也必然嘗試過其它的想法。研究歐洲的整合過程,不應只是從一九五零年開始,我們應該從十九世紀末二十世紀初開始,那是個民族國家概念興盛的時期,面對著民族間日益的衝突,歐洲當時是如何處理的?第一次大戰後,歐洲已獲取了一次教訓,同時它們也感受到來自美國的威脅,它們是如何重新調適自己,又是如何處理歐洲自我認同的問題?更重要的是,到底何謂歐洲?這些問題也就是本論文所企圖研究與回答的。
    It has been over fifty years since European countries started their development of cooperation and integration. In many aspects, Europe has reached a level that human beings had never thought of. The process of this development is getting more stable and faster. In the future, the emergence of European constitution and military won’t even surprise us.
    Many say the achievement is owing to the lesson that the European people learned from the two world wars. After two world wars, the European people had seen the destruction of their home land, felt the bitterness of the loss of their family, and wondered what kind of future would lie ahead of them. Therefore, many projects aiming for maintaining the stability of the area had been proposed, especially Schuman Declaration, which has been regarded as the first step forward the cooperation and integration of Europe. However, I can’t help myself wondering if there weren’t any proposals before Schuman Declaration, which was the time the Europe was still fighting the wars. I believe there were. Had there been no proposals or ideas for the post-war reconstruction of Europe during the period of time, there would not have been so many projects and ideas after the wars. During the time, nationalism played an important role in Europe. Also, Europe started to rethink its position in the world stage, especially in the face of the challenge from the United States. Most importantly, Europe needed to find out the meaning of what Europe really was. This is what I try to find out and answer in this thesis.
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