英國工黨源起於希望工會能保護成員的利益。1918年工黨黨章將自己定位為社會主義流派之一，即國有制(State Ownership)。如此的意識形態受限於民主社會主義(Democracy Socialism)。但過了將近一個世紀，工黨的老舊思想已跟不上世界的趨勢，使得大選連年失利。 綜觀英國政黨輪替的歷史，工黨執政最成功的是1945年至1950年的這段時期。1945年的工黨對於社會福利方面有明確的目標也確實達成。當時有貝弗里奇報告(Beveridge Report)及從戰時就開始發展的社會安全制度。此時的工黨政府建立了全民國家保險體系、社會福利系統和全國免費醫療服務。其主張的社會主義旨在消弭社會次等階級狀態。 布萊爾(Tony Blair,1997-2007年英國首相)則倡導結合自由主義和社會民主主義的中間偏左(Center-left)路線，也就是近年來盛行的第三條路(the Third Way)。其中心思想是認為完善的社會是由堅強的家庭和民間組織所組成，之後還有睿智廉能的政府來支持其運作。工黨政府於是針對社會安全和就業方面，提出了年金改革及新政(New Deals)。其基本方針是把社會福利擴大到職場上，讓工作獲得合理報酬，並投資個人所需技能。 本研究之目的為探討工黨的第三條路線，針對年金改革及就業政策是否能因應全球化及人口老化等現象。其次是探討其政策對不同族群的影響。 The British Labor Party is originated the goal of protecting member''s benefit. In 1918, the Labor Party set themselves as one of socialist schools. This ideology is restricted by the Democracy Socialism. However, Labour Party lost many times in general elections resulted from old thinking in this century.
The most successful period governing by Labor Party is 1945 -1950. In 1945, Labour Party set some precise goals in social welfare and lived up to it. These achievements has Beveridge report and started to implement the social security system.
Labour''s desire to reform the welfare state was much in evidence before Tony Blair became Labour leader. In 1992, then leader John Smith set up the Commission on Social Justice in an effort to reformulate Labour''s welfare policies. The main report of the commission--Strategies for National Renewal--involved an effective retreat from some of the central aspects of the post-1945 welfare state, particularly in relation to collectivism and the pursuit of equality, which it now called social justice.
Thus, in anticipation of Blair''s soundbite machine, the commission''s reports have all the key catchphrases of welfare reformers, such as, ''The welfare state must offer a hand-up rather than a handout,'' and that it should be transformed ''from a safety net in times of trouble to a springboard for economic opportunity''.
The first goal of this study is try to figure out if the Labour Party’s pension reform and employment policy really work out. The second goal is to talk about these policy makes what kind of influence to different groups.