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    題名: 論經濟全球化下德國施若德政府對萊茵模式的改革與其成效評估
    其他題名: The reforms and their assessments of German Gerhard Schröder government under economic globalization
    作者: 松柏陵;Sung, Po-ling
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    郭秋慶;Kuo, Chiu-ching
    關鍵詞: 萊茵模式;經濟全球化;第三條路;新中間路線;2010議程;哈茨法案;Rhine model;Economic Globalization;the Third Way;the New Middle way;Agenda 2010;Hartz-Gesetze
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:01:56 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 德國經濟在第二次世界大戰時遭受毀滅性的打擊。然而在「社會市場經濟」(Soziale Marktwirtschaft)的運行下,不但創造了1950-1960年代世界聞名的「經濟奇蹟」(Wirtschaftswunder),也建構出具有特色的德國資本主義模式。法國經濟學家阿爾貝(Michel Albert)鑒於其有別與傳統英美資本主義,而提出「另一種資本主義模式」的存在,即「萊茵模式」(Rheinischer Kapitalismus)。「萊茵模式」的構成要素除了社會市場經濟的法制及競爭秩序外,尚包括建設完善的社會國、部分管制的勞動市場、以及高度集中化的勞資談判,不但可謂是經濟效率與社會民主的成功結合,也打造出一條經濟與社會政策的「中間路線」(the middle way)。

    1970年代的兩次石油危機與布列頓森林體系(Bretton Woods)的崩潰,引發了西方福利國家的危機。1990年代後,德國必須面對兩德再統一、歐洲統合的深化與廣化及經濟全球化對「萊茵模式」本身所帶來的變遷與衝擊。此外,憲政體制與社會人口結構的問題與改變也是各界關注的焦點。內外在情勢的急遽變化使得德國經濟出現經濟成長遲緩、失業率居高不下、財政赤字嚴重與國際競爭力衰退…等問題。

    社會民主黨籍總理施若德(Gerhard Schröder)於1998年上台執政。他接受了英國首相布萊爾「第三條路」(the third way)的概念,更提出符合德國需要的「新中間路線」(die Neue Mitte),旨在透過社經改革解決「萊茵模式」於經濟全球化下的調適問題。改革過程中最令人囑目的,莫過於是針對德國社會福利體系及勞動市場進行現代化工程的「2010議程」(Agenda 2010)與一系列的「哈茨法案」(Hartz GesetzeⅠ-Ⅳ)。儘管施若德在2005年的聯邦議會選舉中落敗,然而接任的基督民主黨籍的梅克爾總理(Angela Merkel),基本上也是延襲施若德政府的改革路線。

    本文以歷史的角度觀察戰後「萊茵模式」的發展過程與成功之道,並且解釋其為何在經濟全球化浪潮來襲時,產生衰退的現象。此外也分析施若德政府透過哪些改革措施加以因應調整。最後,筆者亦將評估其改革成效與提出未來展望。
    Germany’s economy was devastated during World War Ⅱ. However, with the adoption of “social market economy”, Germany not only created a world famous “economic miracle”, but also constructed a featured German Capitalism. Due to its difference from Anglo-Saxon model, French Economist Michel Albert proposed a perspective of “the other capitalism model”, and that is “Rhine model”. The constituent elements of Rhine model are the institutions and competition order of social market economy, a well-constructed social state, a partly regulated labour market, and a highly centralized industrial negotiations. It is not only a successful hybrid of economic efficiency and social democracy, but builds “the middle way” of economic and social policy.

    Two oil shocks and the collapse of Bretton Woods system during 1970s caused the crisis of Western welfare states. After 1990s, Germany has had to face the changes and challenges to Rhine model itself that has come with reunification, deepening and widening of European Integration, and economic globalization. Besides, constitutional regime and the demographic structure are also concerned by many. Internal and external circumstances have caused German economic laggard, high unemployment rate, serious fiscal deficit and decline of international competitiveness.

    Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of Social Democratic Party came to power in 1998. He accepted the concept of “the Third Way” proposed by British Prime Minister Tony Blair, and announced “die Neue Mitte” to Germany’s need, which aimed at addressing the adaptation to economic globalization through social and economic reforms. “Agenda 2010” and a series of “Hartz Gesetze” made to modernize German social welfare system and labour market attract people’s eyes during this process. Despite the defeat in Bundestag’s election in 2005, succeeding Chancellor Angela Merkel of Christian Democratic Union basically follow the reform path of her predecessor.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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