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    題名: 歐盟觀光政策對於歐洲整體觀光發展影響之研究
    其他題名: A study on the tourism policy of European Union and its influence on the development for European tourism
    作者: 杜冠蓁;Tu, Kuan-chen
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    苑倚曼;Yuan, Yi-mond
    關鍵詞: 歐盟觀光政策;永續發展;21世紀議程;環境保護;競爭力;觀光與就業;EU tourism policy;sustainable development;Agenda 21;EDEN;Competitiveness;tourism and employment
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:01:04 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 現今世界觀光客前十大度假首選國,歐盟國家至少就佔有一半。歐洲除了擁有得天獨厚的天然觀光資源外,其亦為古文明源頭之一,本身就擁有豐富的古遺址、人文資源。再加上後天歐洲人民的努力與維護,提出各式政策、行動計畫及相關措施予以確切實踐,並配合各類金融工具金援予以協助發展,歐洲人民將其優勢,發揮的淋漓盡致,可以想像何以歐洲在世界旅遊市場上得以獨佔鰲頭,讓同樣也是古文明國家,同樣也具有久遠歷史及古蹟的亞洲地區如中國與印度,只能緊追在後。

    實際上在歐共體條約中,並沒有為歐洲觀光設定一個特殊的政策條款,而歐盟對於觀光政策發展,並不在創造一套制式化的共同觀光政策,也不在取代各國在其本國觀光事務的主導地位。歐盟在觀光議題中,扮演著輔助角色,與其說歐盟欲建立共同的觀光政策,更確切的說,應該是促進歐盟各國達成觀光的合作行動。基本上,歐盟觀光政策是建構於歐盟整體社會、經濟、文化、環境及區域發展等其它領域之政策內,彼此相互影響配合,並非僅僅狹義的局限於我們所認知的一套制式化觀光政策裡頭。

    整體來說,歐盟在推廣觀光政策所運用的思維有五:其一為實施有利歐洲觀光的合作行動,創造歐洲公民旅遊便利性,進而促進歐盟會員國公民互相交流,間接促進區域發展。其二為藉由觀光所帶來的經濟效益,使觀光產業成為歐洲重要產業之一,並進一步考量歐洲觀光對於其它產業的影響及融合,例如原本趨向失去優勢的歐洲農漁產業,藉由轉型觀光,除了可提升該產業競爭力,為該地區帶來經濟效益,並進一步減少因歐盟失業率攀升,所可能引發的社會問題。其三為藉由觀光政策推動,改善歐盟觀光發展不均衡現象。歐盟觀光大國如西班牙、法國及義大利等國,均在世界旅遊市場中,排名前幾大;而歐盟亦有觀光較不發達的部份中東歐地區,此二類型觀光興衰差距頗大,隨著觀光政策的發展與運用,我們可了解它如何透過行動計畫的實施,試著去改善這些差異,提升歐洲旅遊品質。其四為共同體持續藉由不同的行動與計畫,來宣揚歐洲觀光,如EDEN及歐洲文化之都等選拔。共同體每年會舉行不同的觀光推廣活動,吸引全球旅客目光,持續維護其於世界旅遊市場的能見度。其五為維護歐洲環境之永續發展。自21世紀開始,歐盟為因應全球氣候變遷異常、科技發展所造成的汙染等環境問題,歐盟在觀光政策之推動,將「永續發展」做為首要理念,以呼應1992年世界永續發展高峰會所簽定的「21世紀議程」之全球性重要訴求,並持續加強會員國於觀光產業之合作、創新投資、優化服務品質及知識、競爭力的提升。未來歐盟觀光政策,將持續配合國際趨勢發展,適時予以調整。
    Europe is the most visited region in the world by tourists: at least 5 EU countries are world top ten destinations for holiday-makers. Europe possesses great natural and delicate cultural tourism resources, ancient monuments, as testimony of European long civilization. Financial tools are properly used to support regional tourism development defined by policies, action programs, original measures turned into practice, taking advantage of the natural resources perfectly. This bring some hints on the low development and maintenance of most ancient countries like China and India which could not yet catch up the step of European tourism development.

    Actually, there is no specific tourism treaty in “The Treaty on European Union” (The Maastricht Treaty). The tourism policy of EU neither creating an institutional common tourism policy nor replacing the directing role of the member states on tourism issues. Basically, EU plays its role as a supporter, by helping the member states for common tourism related actions. The tourism policy of EU is related to the social, financial, cultural, environmental policy, involved in the development of member typical regions and national territory.

    The European Union use to promote the common tourism policy through five main strategies. First, EU helps to promote cooperative actions which relate to tourism into practice, bringing more convenience and interaction between EU citizens. It will also promote the regional development of Europe. Second, the tourism industry bring huge economical efficiency for Europe, tourism industry therefore become an important sector of the industry. The EU decide to utilize the advantage of the economical benefit, they integrate tourism into the industries which seem to have lost their advantage like agricultural and fishery industries. It helps to promote their competence, bring economical benefit for the specific regions and also prevent the social problems that would cause by the rise of unemployment rate. Third, from the European tourism policy, we also learn how EU tries to adjust the tourism differences between all member states and tries to improve the quality of European tourism. Fourth, the Union keeps promoting the European tourism in the world’s tourism market year after year. We could find different tourism related promotion, activities or selection like EDEN (European Destinations of Excellence), European Capital of Culture, etc. The Union keeps maintaining the visibility of the European tourism in the world’s tourism market. Fifth, in order to solve the environmental problems like the climate in disorder, water scarcity, technical pollution, maintaining the sustainable development of European environment become the principle for European tourism policy since 21 century start. “Sustainable Development” is the key point of all European tourism policy, related actions, programs or measures. The European tourism policy will keep following the international trend (like keep responding to the key issue – Agenda 21 of the World Summit on Sustainable Development) for a cohesive European tourism policy able to coordinate tourism industry, boost investments for innovation, better quality services, knowledge, competitiveness, and cooperation between member countries.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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