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    Title: 九一一事件後英國布萊爾政府的反恐政策(2001-2004年)
    Other Titles: 九一一事件後英國布萊爾政府的反恐政策2001-2004年
    The counter-terrorism policy of tony blair administration after 911 attack (2001-2004)
    Authors: 陳淑慧;Chen, Shu-hui
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    蔡政文;Tsai, Cheng-wen
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 00:00:59 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 冷戰結束後,最嚴重的國際安全威脅係來自國際恐怖主義跨國界的攻擊;因此引起世界各國紛紛展開反恐的行動。以英國而言,自一九七Ο年代起,便開始立法防範國內北愛爾蘭恐怖主義的威脅。一九九七年布萊爾(Tony Blair)上台後,依據當時的國際情勢所需,在反恐政策上作出轉變的決定。

    二ΟΟ一年,發生在美國本土的九一一事件,正是成為布萊爾政府對於英國國家安全政策與反恐政策的分界點。九一一後,布萊爾反恐政策的主要目標以加強英美特殊關係、建立區域與全球反恐夥伴關係和重振英國國際影響力三者為主,並透過以暴制暴(以庇護恐怖團體的主權國家為主)、安撫取向、國際合作(斷根構想)、不侵犯人民基本權力等四個政策取向作為執行的手段。除此之外,英國雖早已具有反恐相關法案,其國內朝野政黨亦再度藉此機會希望政府能夠制定新法;此舉促成國會表決通過「反恐怖主義、犯罪與安全法」(ATCS Act 2001)。此法雖是英國因應國際恐怖主義日益活絡而訂定的法案,但卻造成國內各界與聯合國人權委員會的偵查,並遭稱「藉反恐之名,行反人權之實」的一項法案。由於2005年五月英國國內提前舉行下議院大選,因此,工黨政府特於2005年二月提出另一新的「反恐怖主義草案」(Prevention of Terrorism Bill)欲將ATCS Act 2001備受爭議的第四部份作為取代。

    本文研究架構在以2001年九一一事件對於布萊爾反恐政策產生的轉變作為探討的主軸,透過其反恐政策的制定背景、主要內涵、重要特徵、問題爭議等整理,剖析轉變中的英國反恐政策。主要的研究方法是以國際關係中的「現實主義」觀點以及布萊爾的「國際主義」內涵作為分析、評估布萊爾在九一一事件後的反恐相關政策的方法。全文架構如下:首先,簡單回顧英國反恐政策的歷史背景與九一一事件前布萊爾的反恐政策;其次,針對九一一事件後布萊爾反恐政策的主要目標、政策取向、反恐法案等內容進行研析,兼述布萊爾在國際反恐各層面的合作事項;最後,歸納英國反恐政策的執行成效,進而展望其第三任政策的可能發展方向與可供我國參考的各項措施。
    The most devastating and serious international threat during the post cold war period is the international terrorism. Due to its cross-border massive attacks, nations all over the world have launched a series of anti-terror measures. Starting from 1970s, British government had been fighting against its domestic threat—the Northern Ireland Terrorism. When Blair administration took the office in 1997, Tony Blair still followed the traditional policies. However, after the 911 attack, he started to initiate new counter-terrorism policy in order to fight the new threat.

    In the aftermath of the attack, Blair had endeavored to develop his new policy in anti-international-terrorism area. His new policy envelopes three main goals— enhancing the Anglo-American relationship, building regional and global counter-terrorism partnership and regaining British international influence, in order to secure British national interests. To achieve the goals, Tony Blair employs four approaches; “Fighting violence with violence”, “appeasement policy”, “international cooperation” and “protection of human rights”.

    This thesis emphasizes the 911’s impact on Blair’s policy against international terrorism. The main research method is using both “Realism” and “Internationalism” to analyze the background, issues and features of his policy. The thesis is divided five chapters and the structure as follows: the first chapter is mainly about the history background of British counter-terrorism policies before 911. The second chapter contains the objects, methods of Tony Blair’s new measure and anti-terror legislation in the aftermath of 911. The third chapter is the contributors of his new policy. The forth chapter contains British bilateral, regional and global cooperation against international terrorism. The fifth chapter is through the two theories to assess his policy, and at the same time foreseeing his future policy in the third term.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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