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    題名: A debate on biofuel in the European union : energy sustainability scheme
    其他題名: 歐盟生質燃料的發展 : 能源永續性之探討與評估
    作者: 陳怡欣;Chen, Yi-sin
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    苑倚曼;Yuan, Yi-mond
    關鍵詞: 歐盟;再生能源;生質燃料;生質酒精;生質柴油;石油危機;糧食危機;biomass;Biofuel;bio-energy;bio-refinery;EU;Europeanization;Biofuel Directive;renewable energy;oil crisis;food crisis;sustainable development
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 00:00:56 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本論文旨在探討近年來爭議聲浪高漲的液態生質燃料,聚焦該替代能源於歐盟地區的發展與政策研究。促使歐盟發展生質燃料的外部因素,主要為七零、八零年代的石油危機,京都議定書象徵的國際間減少碳排放量趨勢,以及讓歐盟越來越感到急迫的能源自主(以避免繼續被俄國以天然氣供應與否要脅)。
      本論文的研究目的,在於辯證以下兩個層次:
    (一) 歐體於2003年頒布的生質燃料指令,是否促使各會員國的生質燃料使用比率趨同?
    (二) 綜觀歐盟所需的進口或自產生質燃料之料源、會員國之再生能源法規與環境稅、各
    會員國的生產能力等,除了有助於評估第一個辯證層次,大規模種植陸生能源作物引發的糧食危機等負面現象,以及種種生質燃料的正負面影響都將在第二個辯證層次討論。
      論文主要可分為四個大區塊:歐洲料源、歐盟與會員國政策、生質燃料導致的全球性負面影響與正面功能、生質燃料科技與研發的趨勢。筆者認為並非所有區域都適合採用生質燃料做為交通部門的替代能源,應該以該地區的生質燃料料源供應穩定與否,以及料源的耕種與生質燃料製造過程是否合乎永續性為前提做初步評估;歐盟各國政府推行的政策與課稅或減稅方式,或許也能提供臺灣當局作為再生能源稅法與相關法規制定的參考。
      此外,筆者綜合論文兩個層次、與四大區塊的研究,導出的結論為:
    (一) 生質燃料的推動與發展需經過審慎的環境評估;
    (二) 朝向永續性的能源生產與消費模式,除了政府與企業有責任外,民眾(消費者)的
    自覺與落實環境教育才是決定合乎永續生產之商品充滿市場競爭力的重要因素;
    (三) 相較於歐洲土地幅員廣大,台灣地小人稠,應朝向海洋資源的永續利用,投入研發藻類生質燃料以及其他第二代、第三代生質燃料。
    As the climate change issue under spotlight, governments and officials all over the world are looking for solution by inter-governmental conference and agreement as Kyoto Protocol. On the other hand, under the shadow of the oil crisis in the 70’s and 80’s, many western industry countries have begun to develop and invest in renewable energy; for European Union, renewable energy is not just to combat with climate change, but also a key for regional energy security.

    Among the renewables, biofuel gains a lot of critique and attention these year mostly because of food crisis. This thesis aims at evaluating and analyzing the biofuel development in the EU through two perspectives of debate:
    1. Whether there will be “Europeanization” between EU Member States? And whether the target of Biofuel Directive is realistic and effective in the promotion of biofuel?
    2. The positive and negative side of first generation biofuel development—points of view from both the pro-biofuel camps and the anti-biofuel camps.

    This thesis will survey the debate based on the biofuel feedstock, EU-level and national level policy, consequence of the first generation biofuel, and biofuel R&D and technology in the near future. To achieve the ultimate goal—energy sustainability—the critique will infuse environmental concern to form the debate; namely, thorough environmental impact assessment must be done before launching biofuel promotion, and it is not just the government and business have to pay attention to sustainable development, individuals are also responsible for their consumer behavior.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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