|摘要: ||歷經五十餘載的發展，歐盟不僅逐漸成為一全球行為者，其在國際官方發展援助的支出也越來越展露其重要性。對外援助一般被視為是西方國家慈善的作為，然而我們亦不可忽略其背後的政治意涵，例如冷戰時期西方國家利用援助來制約共產主義的擴張，對外援助也被當做國家的國際政治工具來使用。在過去的援助政策中，歐盟特別獨厚於非加太地區，但在現今冷戰結束與全球化的影響下，我們欲了解這樣的情況是否持續，以及援助背後的動機與目的。本文將藉學者John White的援助國導向理論，做為了解歐盟對外援助本質的研究方法，對於歐盟行使援助的政治和經濟目的進行探討；並佐以現實主義來解釋其行為。|
Since the establishment of European Community in 1957, European Union is becoming a global actor in the international society, and its contribution to the share of official development assistance (ODA) is respectable. People might thing that foreign aid was offered because of the motive of charity and humanity, however, we should not disregard its meaning of politics. For example, western states used foreign aid as a tool to restrict the expansion of communism in the cold war era; foreign aid could be treated as a means of international politics. In the past, European Union showed great favor to the ACP countries in its ODA distribution. But nowadays, the cold war has become history and the effect of globalization is considerable, in this circumstance, this study focused on the continuity of its policy and motive for offering aid. The donor-oriented aid theory by John White and the concept of realism in international relation theories would be used as method to analysis in this article.
In this thesis, the content of aid policy, the factor and the decision-making processes would be discussed, in order to understand the meaning of EU’s aid policy. And it would also look into the aid mechanism, strategy, state of play and the action in Malawi to know its activities in the field. Finally, the effectiveness, the factors influencing and the evaluation of EU’s aid.
EU’s action in Malawi was not very success, because there were too many factors involve in the process. The aid policy and strategy were important, and the capabilities of recipient country and implement were also influential.